Job Analysis is a process of determining and classifying details of the specific job duties and necessities as well as the comparative prominence of these responsibilities for a certain work (Fine & Cronshaw, 1999). It normally comprises of tracking a worker’s responsibilities, the length of time of each job, observing the worker carrying out his or her duties, cross-examining the worker, directors and others who interrelate with the worker, and making a comparison of jobs in the same constituent part and job family or job grade. An important concept in job analysis is that it is an evaluation of the job, not the person doing the job. There are various methods to execute a job analysis, but all necessitate the support of the staff in the position, his or her manager(s) and others the worker must work diligently with while undertaking his or her job duties. They include:
Direct observation of incumbents while carrying out their work facilitates the skilled job expert to get first-hand information and knowledge about the job being examined. The observation technique of job analysis is suitable for jobs in which the work conducts are discernible encompassing some level of movement on the part of the incumbent, or job responsibilities are limited in time enabling many observations to be made in a short spell of time. Additionally, a noteworthy part of the task can be detected in a short period of time, or tasks in which the expert can study facts about the job through observation.
With direct observation, the skilled job expert can acquire first-hand information and understanding about the work under examination. Other job analysis techniques such as the questionnaires and interviews only permit the job expert to ultimately attain this information. Thus, with the other techniques, bases of error such as amplifications or exclusions are presented either by the items on the questionnaire or by the person being interviewed. With direct observation of the incumbent, these chances of fault are removed (Fine & Cronshaw, 1999).
The interview method is used to collect a range of information from an incumbent by asking him/her to define the responsibilities and work executed. The interview might be structured or unstructured. In an unstructured one, the interview is a discussion with no ready queries or programmed line of enquiry. A structured interview may adopt a certain design encompassing: a questionnaire or an inventory may be used and chronicling a job-holder’s sequence of undertakings in enactment (Fine & Getkate, 1995).
The only advantage of an interview is that it allows the incumbent to define duties and tasks that are not noticeable. On the other hand, its disadvantage is that the incumbent may exaggerate or omit some tasks and duties.
Another frequently used job analysis technique is having the questionnaires filled from managers, workforces, their seniors. Conversely, this technique also suffers from subjective biasness. Great caution should be taken while outlining queries for different ratings of personnel (Fine & Getkate, 1995). To get the true job-related information, organization should successfully communicate it to the workforce that data being collected will be used for their own benefits. If it is not done properly, it will be a sheer wastage of time, money and human resources (Parker & Wall, 1998).
Its main advantage is that first-hand information of the employee is easily accessible for any individual to observe.
Approaches to Job Design
Job design is the process of work arrangement targeted at overpowering or decreasing job displeasure and staff separation arising from mechanistic and repetitive tasks. Through job design, establishments try to increase efficiency echelons by presenting non-financial remunerations from a basis of subjective accomplishment in meeting the amplified business responsibility and challenge of one’s work (Parker & Wall, 1998). Approaches to job design include:
This is a way of scheming jobs to stimulate staffs. This design is similar to job enlargement in that the worker gets to do more tasks, but the emphasis is extra on responsibility and independence in the tasks that are part of the enrichment. Independence is one of the most influential motivators in job gratification, so this is a greatly efficacious means of planning the work setting (Parker & Wall, 1998).
Planning a job with job rotation means building in a range of responsibilities for all the workforces, thus increasing the employee’s areas of proficiency, eradicating monotony on the job and providing more tractability in work flow and staffing (Parker & Wall, 1998).
This technique of job design centers on the jobs to be done, the time devoted in doing the tasks, and the productivity of service or product flow through the process. There is no responsiveness directed to workers’ job fulfillment or lack thereof in this design procedure, but in a highly-automated atmosphere, there is typically a prerequisite for job engineering design (Parker & Wall, 1998).
This kind of job design also refers to the doctrines of job satisfaction and motivation by building in an ordinary advancement for workforces to take on extra responsibilities that are a rational extension of what they already do. This could just as simply be referred to as job extension. The notion is to begin staff members with one task and once they have accomplished its mastery, they can add an extra task that is in keeping with the first task already completed (Parker & Wall, 1998).
Selected Approaches to Job Design
The selected approaches to job design are job rotation and job enrichment. Given the situation that the company needs to employ a new hire, chances are the new hire after being absorbed by the company for the Customer Service Representative Positions may or may not perform up to the desired expectations. Thus, through a rotation approach, should the new employee fail to perform as per the expectations in the customer care department, he/she might be rotated to a new area where the management feels like they might perform better. Through such actions, the approach will enhance the next approach which is job enrichment. The new hire will be motivated and his/her skills and capabilities would increase since the management has the capacity and techniques to develop the best from each employee through the initial approach of job rotations.
Despite these benefits, the downside of job rotation is that staff members who have trouble multi-tasking might find work like this tough or unsatisfying and one cannot always recognize economies of scale from individual employee. Similarly, job enrichment has its own drawbacks such that the management has no certainty that employee will be motivated in the process; the motivation aspect is objective which in many instances differ a lot. In addition, the responsibilities given in the name of improving the capabilities of the employee, under some circumstance, may not be performed effectively especially with employees with low levels of motivations (Parker & Wall, 1998).
Strategies that the Organization Can Implement to Attract and Select Qualified Applicants
Choice of Appropriate Method of Communication to Applicants
A range of recruitment techniques may be used to communicate vacancies. A firm can benefit from both low-involvement and high-involvement plans at this stage of the employment procedure. Low-involvement tactics involves corporate sponsorship or advertisements of the company’s product or service. They may inspire applicants’ positive discernments of that business and therefore raise aspirant desirability. High-involvement recruitment plans encompass employee endorsements or exhaustive recruitment advertisements which arise when prospective applicants meet with existing workforces to discuss more about their no-haws with that business. The choice of the communication tool depends on the cost of each recruitment method, the number of vacancies to be filled, the nature of the target audience, and economic situations (Woodruffe, 1999). The choice of appropriate communication means will not only reduce the business cost but also will make the firm be accessible a variety of qualified Customer Care Representative applicants to choose from.
An essential part of enticing the best applicants is to uphold the business as an employer of choice. Employer branding is the notion of applying the exact publicizing procedure used in the control of clienteles to the enlistment procedure. Influences on the development of an employer brand come from the organization itself, its competitors and the community which it serves. Job applicants are appealed by a resilient employer trademark. This is principally a sub-set of the overall business brand, incorporating the firm’s systems, policies, values, and conducts with an aim of motivating, enticing, and retaining good individuals. The goal is to deliver the disposition of the business as that external candidates can improve a sense of what it might be like to work there. For instance, if the company brand claims that the business is a dynamic and enjoyable place to be, the recruitment process must be well-organized, slick and involved the kind of assessors and interviewers who present the proper image and fashion of working (Woodruffe, 1999).
Measuring the Performance of Customer Service Representatives
From the observation method of job analysis, the Customer Service Representatives performance analysis in detail can be done within a number of extensive sets like, current qualifications and competences of performing works, promo ability of a worker, strengths and weaknesses, overall impression of presentation and training requirements of the worker (Fine & Cronshaw, 1999).
Performance Tests and Observations
This is method is built on the test of expertise or understanding. The assessments may be written or a real demonstration of capabilities. For it be used as a method of measuring performance of the Customer Service Representatives, it must be authorized and consistent to be beneficial. Its benefit is that tests may be appropriate to measure potential more than real performance (Parker & Wall, 1998).
Use of Accounting Technique
Performance of Customer Service Representatives is assessed from the financial returns earnings to the organization. Cost to keep and maintain employee, and benefit the business derives is determined.
Client surveys give the customers an opportunity to rate the employee and give remarks on the services that have been offered. This is a great way of getting feedback from the clients that directly interact with the customer care representatives in the company.
Fine, S. & Cronshaw, S. (1999). Functional job analysis. Mahwah, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates.
Fine, S. & Getkate, M. (1995). Benchmark tasks for job analysis. Mahwah, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates.
Parker, S. & Wall, T. (1998). Job and work design. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Woodruffe, C. (1999). Winning the talent war. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.
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