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Enhancing Door Security Using Smart Devices (February 2017)

The internet of things is a concept that has revolutionized how we do things in our homes and offices. These days, through our devices, we can control what our home appliances and machines do while we are miles away from them. This helps to give us peace of mind while being busy in other activities. This paper describes how the idea behind internet of things can be useful in creating a door security system, that can allow the user to discern the security situation at home or office and issue commands regarding certain actions. The system consists of sensors that detect whether a door is locked or not and sends the information to the user, the user can also command the device to lock the door and set off the security alarm whenever a person wants to break into the house. The study includes algorithms of how the system works and methods of implementation.
KEY WORDS: Internet of things, smart devices, door security, servers, intuitive applications
The advancement of science and technology has really aided in enhancing lifestyle and making life easier. Newer and more powerful devices are coming up daily, with sophisticated features for solving problems in unimaginable ways. Internetworking of these devices with our smartphones and computers through internet connections and broadband networks makes accomplishing some traditional tasks even easier. The advent in tracking technology and fleet management using tracking devices is one area of how technology has highly enhanced security and service delivery. The study of the internet of things and smart devices and their application indoor security is an important subject of using current technology to solve problems.
Background to Internet of Things
The idea of the internet of things come from the need to provide connection to traditional devices in our environments and enabling them communicates to each other in order to accomplish certain tasks. The idea first appeared in 1999, where proposals for interlinking objects with sensors and providing people with ease of controlling them became popular [1]. However, mobile and internet technology at the time was in its infancy and provided the greatest bottleneck in adopting the technology. Connectivity was expensive and the use of IPv4 became problematic with deficiencies in limited addresses [2]. The production of software that could enable the functioning of these systems was slow.
However, the advancement in technology has provided an avenue of exploring the use of IoT in everyday life, from controlling traffic, fleet control, managing home appliances, ventilation, vehicle systems and much more [3]. IoT-enabled devices contain sensors and actuators that measure temperature, pressure, light, motion, position and send such data to cloud servers through a wireless network. The applications embedded in the devices process these data from servers, and provide real-time feedback to the user. Additionally, users are able to access these data from their mobile phones or computers and therefore control these devices from remote locations or within their houses.
The architecture of the IoT comprises of three significant elements: the hardware, middleware and the presentation. The hardware consists of the sensors, actuators and the embedded communication devices [2] The sensors are responsible for measuring changes in environmental variables such as temperature, motion, and weight among others. The actuators act on the changes indicated by the sensors, for example, lowering the rate of cooling when the refrigerator attains the right temperature. The embedded communication devices are responsible for uploading this data to the cloud servers through wireless connectivity [3]. The middleware consists of computing parts such as the cloud servers and wireless communication, which helps to enhance machine-to-machine communication. The middleware contained the data storage and mechanisms for data analytics for processing and interpreting the data.
Additionally, the third part of the IoT architecture is the presentation, which is an easily understandable virtualization tool that can be of use in any application and device. The smart devices allow for multiple means of data entry from users. This can be through buttons on the screen, swiping, tapping, voice recognition, facial recognition, and behavior analysis among other methods. The smart devices can collect user information for a long time and integrate the user behavior in their database [4]. This enables the devices to make decisions for the users even when they are not around. For example, a certain user may be used to switching the ventilation machine to moderate temperatures every morning. The machine, after gathering data for some time, will be switching to a moderate temperature mode every morning.Figure 1: How IoT framework works (Adopted from Gubi et al. 2013)
Smart Devices and IoT
The idea behind IoT is widely seen in the development of wearable devices, where IT manufacturers have embedded sensors into traditional devices for various purposes. Devices such as watches, training gear, sneakers, and military uniforms come embedded with sensors that measure heart rate, blood oxygen, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, weight and heartbeat among other parameters [4]. Wearable smart devices are getting popular in the hospital, where health practitioners use them to help patients with their therapeutical and self-care needs among others. The beauty of wearable devices is that they have intuitive applications with a great user interface that provide their users with a lot of ease in accomplishing simple tasks.
Additionally, users of smart devices can integrate these devices with their mobile phones to provide easier operation. A study by [5] provides a case study for the use of a mobile software called HeartMapp, where the patient receives real-time data from Bluetooth devices worn on the chest. This helps the patient get information on how to manage their congestive heart failure conditions. These smart devices, therefore, make it easy to measure body and environmental conditions and their changes and provide the data for easy decision-making.
According to [4], smart connected devices are ushering a new wave of competition in the IT industry, not because of the technology but by the data and power, they consume. A study by [3] supports this by stating that a large amount of data generated by these devices, and how to handle these data provides challenges that manufacturers are finding hard to handle. Therefore, the production of devices that consumes less power and provides safer ways of handling data, while still maintaining good performance will determine how the real winner in the race to convince the consumer.
Several elements support the implementation of IoT technology. The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) makes it easier for IT equipment manufacturers to develop microchips used for wireless communication devices. These chips can be small enough to fit in miniature devices such as watches and socks and are able to hold sensors small enough to integrate into the chips and measure environmental changes [1]. The Wireless Sensor Networks employs a group of intelligent sensors distributed in different environments for a gathering of vital data. The development of integrated circuits utilizing the low power and wireless technology has made it easier for developing a miniature, low-power, and efficient devices for use in gathering changes in environmental variables.
The development of cloud technology as an alternative to the traditional databases housed in data centers also helps in IoT. The cloud storage offers means through which intuitive applications can access these data and process them to provide meaningful output [1]. These elements enable the development of IoT infrastructure possible.
The Development of Door Security Model
The ability to capture data from remote locations and use this data provides an easy mechanism for implementing a door security system. This system shall entail fitting the door with a security device that ensures the door is always locked and the user can unlock and even check whether the door is locked from a remote location. For example, a man in his office can use his phone or computer to check whether the doors in his houses are open since leaving the house in the morning. Additionally, the device can have the mechanism of informing the user whenever someone enters the house, by sending a notification to his phone or smart watch. The user can then use the information to either alert the security personnel or activate the alarm, all from the comfort of his workplace. In order to accomplish this, the device must have sensors that can detect changes in motion whenever someone opens the door. This will also entail mechanisms by which the user can activate and deactivate the device(s) whenever in the house. Another possibility is integrating the system with security alert systems, where the device can automatically alert the security personnel whenever someone breaks into the house.
Device behind/inside the door

Figure 2: The working of the security device model
This is different from the traditional alarm systems where sensors around the house detect movements. In this model, the device will exist inside or behind the door, and can enable the user to lock the doors from remote locations, locking in the burglars and making it easy for the security personnel to arrest them. The user can also set off the house alarm or program the device to accomplish this on its own.
Additionally, the system shall require a custom-made mobile application that can send commands to the device from remote locations using wireless network or broadband networks. Through the application, the user can have the option of locking or opening doors at home, especially whenever a family member requires access into the house. The user can also use the system at night to lock doors and detect whether someone is attempting to unlock the door. The sensors should work such that they are able to detect small changes in motion whenever someone is trying to forcefully open the door and send this data to the user. The data can specify which door the assailant is trying to open and send this information to the user, who can decide to activate the alarm or call security personnel.
The sensors placed in the device will have the ability to measure small changes in movements and pressure exerted on the door. A version of the sensor can also incorporate a mechanism where insertion of keys in the key hole can trigger the sensor, especially when the owner of the house is not
around. This data then goes to the network servers through wireless connectivity or using wide area networks, where the processing of the information from the devices takes place. The back end also consists of databases that store these data.
Figure 4: Algorithms on feedback – command mechanism in the door lock security system
Simultaneously, the user receives notification and is able to send commands to the device through the intuitive custom mobile application for the system. The commands can range from locking the door, switching on door alarms, and even sending a message direct to security personnel.
In comparison with existing systems, the current security systems comprise of sensors placed at designated locations around the house that are able to capture movements. These sensors use laser or infrared systems to detect motion in their surroundings. An intruder sets off the alarm whenever he intercepts these laser or infrared fields. However, the system often causes false alarms, especially when someone with no bad intention comes around the house, or when a user unintentionally sets off the alarm. This may provide problems with security personnel and is terribly annoying.
However, in this system, the actuators will be responsible for ensuring the door remains locked whenever the user sends the commands. The user can decide to ensure only the doors remain locked and whether or not to activate alarms. Additionally, the development of the system can incorporate automatic functionalities where the user can assign default commands that the device will use whenever there is a problem. For example, the user can command the device to lock the doors, activate the alarm and inform the police immediately there is a break in. this way, the user will only receive notifications whenever a break in occurs but and stay pretty well knowing the thief has not broken into the house.
The development of the device may still incorporate other features for different types of doors, especially noting that thieves can easily break in glasses and enter the house. Therefore, the system’s sensor should be able to capture great force on the doors or window and possibly noise coming from breakage of glasses that will prompt sending of feedback to the user. In case of bottlenecks provided by low internet connectivity caused by storms that may affect Ethernet and Wi-Fi networks, the system can utilize GSM technology that sends data to the user in any location in the world. Using mobile networks such as 3G and 4G can help in bridging the connectivity barriers that wireless connectivity may face bottlenecks. Using IoT in the development of this system can be very beneficial in providing ample security in the house, and can help as an alternative to the traditional annoying home security alarm systems.
[1] L. I. Atzori, & G. Morabito. (2010). The internet of things: A survey.Computer networks, 54(15), 2787-2805.
[2] J. Gubbi, B. Rajkumar, M. Slaven, and P. Marimuthu. “Internet of Things (IoT): A vision, architectural elements, and future directions.” Future generation computer systems 29, no. 7 (2013): 1645-1660.
[3] R. H. Weber. “Internet of Things–New security and privacy challenges.”Computer law & security review 26, no. 1 (2010): 23-30.
[4] M. E. Porter, and J. E. Heppelmann. “How smart, connected products are transforming competition.” Harvard Business Review 92, no. 11 (2014): 64-88.
[5] P. Athilingam, L. A. Miguel, E. J. Remo, M. Laureen, A. B. S. Juan, and A. F. Elliott. “Features and usability assessment of a patient-centered mobile application (HeartMapp) for self-management of heart failure.” Applied Nursing Research32 (2016): 156-163.

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