ISO 5000 is a famous certification which is being used to certify manufacturing results of aluminum-silica dipped carbon steel metal; it helps in maintaining quality standards for proper protection against heat and corrosion. ISO 14000 is a family of standard helps in taking proactive step by the organization to reduce impact of its products on air, land and water. It helps to support regulatory compliances and obtain confidence of investors. A case study is discussed regarding use of various techniques by Total Produce PLC to reduce its energy consumption by 34% of its annual requirement and also discussed some practical techniques to control energy consumption at home. As a whole in the report used various techniques referenced in ISOs for energy conservation and concluded that it is must for our future.
Table of Contents
Introduction ………………………………………………………………………. 5
ISO 5000 ………………………………………………………………………….. 6
ISO 14000 ………………………………………………………………………… 8
Case study …………………………………………………………………………11
Practical Implementation at home …………………………………………………13
List of Figures
Figure 1 (Cold Rolled Steel Coil/Sheet – Production flow chart) ………………….7
Figure 2 (Plan Do Check Act Cycle) ……………………………………………….9
List of Tables
Table 1 (List of standards in ISO 14000 family arranged as per PDCA) …………..9
This report is to highlight the importance, procedures and stages involved in various ISOs required in current society and business world and their required test parameters for proper analysis of end product. Also discussed about a case study and the implementation of energy conservation measures at home.
ISO 5000 is used to certify the carbon steel metal coated with aluminum-silica for protection against heat and corrosion. Many customers use this ISO certification as qualifying criteria for better quality assurance from the suppliers. Manufacturers also need to produce various test results at different stages for proper satisfaction. ISO 14000 is a family of standards used for preventing the impacts of products or its production procedure on environment. It helps in taking proactive steps by the organizations to minimize the impacts. One of its most popular ISO 14001 and its standards are used as standards by environmental regulatory boards of various countries. The famous PDCA cycle of almost all ISOs is used in further case study which is regarding the use of latest technologies for obtaining better energy conservation results. By using few techniques and technology Total Produce PLC of Ireland could save 34% of its annual cost of power consumption. Also shown the implementation of this below discussion at home, by taking few steps or changes at home we can even save energy and reduce operation cost by reducing power consumption at home.
It specifies about the characteristics of metal sheet made of carbon-steel (cold-reduced) material of commercial quality and also coated with constant hot-dipping by aluminum-silicon alloy (Switzerland. International Organization for Standardization, 2015). These aluminum-silicon coatings are used mainly for resisting carbon-steel (CS) metal sheet against heat and corrosion. CS sheet can be produced in various types and design according to the different application requirements. ISO 5000 was published first in 1980 (Switzerland. International Organization for Standardization, 2015), then got revised several times in 1993, 2005 and the fourth and latest edition published in 2011. It is also essential to understand ISO 6353, ISO 6892-1, ISO 7438, ISO 16162 and ISO 16163 for better application.
There are few conditions of manufacturing such as “Chemical composition” or heat analysis, “Mechanical properties”, “Coating” conditions, “Mill passivation”, “Oiling” and “Shape & dimension tolerances” which needs to be adhered to obtain certification (Kuwait, Arab industrial development and mining organization, 2017). As per standard, the manufacturer may be asked to produce report on “Heat analysis” which has to pass through few strict parameters of chemical composition % of mass and the limits of additional chemical elements % of mass as given in ISO 5000:2011. The mechanical properties must be as per standard and continued storing of sheet should be avoided, because it may increase the hardness and decrease formability and if still it happens then it must satisfy Table 4 (see Appendix 1) of ISO 5000:2011. 5% to 11% of silicon is added in aluminum-silicon alloy to increase heat resistance; the coating mass is expressed in gm/m2 of CS sheet applied on both the sides and it must satisfy Table 5 (see Appendix 2) & Table 6 (see Appendix 3) of ISO 5000:2011. The mass of coating mc=[(m0–m1)/A]x106, where m0 is mass before stripping and m1 is after stripping measured in gram. Below figure shows the production flow chart of cold rolled sheet sheet/coil for better understanding.
(Cold Rolled Steel Coil/Sheet – Production flow chart)
To minimize the hazard of wet-storage stain due to storage or shipment, a special chemical treatment is applied to aluminum-silicon coated CS sheet/coil called mill passivation and also oiling is advised to prevent scratches on soft surfaces. The dimensional tolerance should be as per specifications of ISO 16163. Product can be used to make car parts (JFE, 2017).
For the analysis and test result, the size of test piece should not be smaller than 1200 mm2. The heat, tensile, coating mass, triple spot, single spot and coating adherence test are done to satisfy the quality of product. If any test fails at any stage, then it is manufacturer’s responsibility to resubmit the test results of corrected material after suitable treatment.
So all these criterias are applied for proper satisfaction of customer and procure material from the manufacturer having ISO 5000:2011 certified.
It is a family or series of standards and technical reports, which are being used by the organizations, intended to manage environmental responsibilities (Switzerland. International Organization for Standardization, 2015). It helps organizations to minimize the impact of their operation on air, water and land, comply with various statutory environmental requirements and continually enhancing their goals. The first standard on environment management system was published in 1992 by BSI group was BS 7750 (USA. American society for quality, 2017), in 1996 ISO Technical committee and subcommittees developed ISO 14000 family of standards. Around 23 standards were developed by ISO technical committee like ISO 14001, 14004, 14005, 14006, 14015, 14020, 14021, 14024, 14025, 14031 and so on.
ISO 14001:2015 is most popular among all of ISO 14000 family (TechTarget, 2017) and recognized worldwide for Environmental Management System, EMS (Switzerland. International Organization for Standardization. Environmental management, 2015). ISO 14004 gives Additional guidance, ISO 19011 provides auditing standards, ISO 14031 provides guidance to evaluate environmental performances, ISO 14040 provides information on ways to reduce environmental impacts due to its products, ISO 14064 & 14065 gives information on accounting, verification and recognition of greenhouse gas (GHG). Over and above there are also few upcoming new standards, like ISO 14045 will provide information on eco-friendly assessment, ISO 14051 on material flow cost accounting (MFCA), ISO 14067 & 14069 on carbon footprint of products, ISO 14005 on implementation of EMS in phased manner, ISO 14033 on quantitative information of environment and ISO 14066 will provide information on capability requirements for verifiers and validators of GHG.
Like all other ISOs, ISO 14000 family is also designed to work according to PDCA (Plan Do Check Act) cycle, that is first by doing the gap finding analysis of the organization list down the requirements (Plan),
(Plan Do Check Act Cycle)
then by organizing team separately for different activities implement the EMS system (Do), afterwards by performing periodic internal or external audits to (Check) and finally by reviewing the outcomes or shortcomings in implementing EMS system new action item list is framed out to (Act) and again goes back to Plan on how to do the Act and so on to implement the most effective EMS system. Accordingly all the different standards of ISO 14000 family falls in different categories of PDCA cycle as illustrated in below table.
ISO 14050: 2009
ISO 14040: 2006
ISO 14015: 2001
ISO 14020: 2000
ISO 14001: 2004
ISO 14044: 2006
ISO 14031: 1999
ISO 14021: 1999
ISO 14004: 2004
ISO/TR 14047: 2003
ISO 19011: 2002
ISO 14024: 1999
ISO/TS 14048: 2002
ISO 14064-3: 2006
ISO 14025: 2006
ISO Guide 64: 2008
ISO/TR 14049: 2000
ISO 14065: 2007
ISO 14063: 2006
ISO/TR 14062: 2002
ISO 14064-1: 2006
ISO 14064-2: 2006
(List of standards in ISO 14000 family arranged as per PDCA)
But it is also to note that just by adhering to ISO 14000 does not means that the organization need not to comply any or all other statutory standards or requirements released by any national or local regulatory boards (Martincic, 1997). Instead ISO 14000 is a tool which helps in achieving the desired environmental result. However the good news is that in more than 80 countries ISO 14001 is being used as their national standards.
Case Study: Energy conservation in Total Produce PLC, Ireland
Background: Total Produce PLC grow, source, import and then distribute after packaging fresh fruits, vegetables and flowers. This plant is spread out in 3900 m2 of area in Dublin, Ireland and was built in 1996. This plant has 18 banana-maturing chambers, three large stores having controlled temperature, assembly and dispatch area for orders or cartoons. Central roof mounted refrigeration unit is installed which is connected to all coolers and chilled water is used to cool the air inside stores. During an audit conducted in 2011 for energy usage, three main energy consuming areas were targeted like the roof mounted refrigeration unit, the banana-maturing chambers which has cooler fans and the lighting in assembly and dispatch areas. “FTG Refrigeration and Energy Consultants” was awarded the contract to look after the project as consultant.
Project: To control the temperature in stores the air was circulated around the cooling coils, chilled water was passed through the coils from roof mounted refrigeration unit. As a result of continuous usage, the fibres produced from product and packaging containers get accumulated around the coil assembly which results in reducing the efficiency. Now if the set point was targets X0, it used to take more time and hence power for achieving the same, but by regular interval cleaning of debris accumulated due to fibres the efficiency got improved and the X0 could be achieved and maintained in very less time.
The cooler fans were used to run in full speed for 24 hours in 18 banana-maturing chambers to maintain constant stable temperature, but by installing “Triple E-registered inverters” the speed of fan got linked to the difference between desired set temperature and the actual temperature inside. This resulted in running of fans in full load only when the difference is negative and also reduced the cleaning of heated coils and differential hot temperature of motors and the cool air enhanced the efficiency.
Twenty 400W luminaries installed in assembly and dispatch area were replaced by twenty 196W ‘ACEC Supreme 454’ Triple E-registered lamps resulted in reducing energy consumption by around 50%, moreover “Occupancy detection sensors” were installed to ensure the lighting only when some human presence is detected in the area which further resulted in reducing the heat released by lamps and hence less cooling requirement.
Result: Finally by implementing the above project, the refrigeration plant got optimized, cooler fan speed got regulated as per differential temperature and lighting energy consumption reduced by operating only when presence is detected. As a result, the project could save 34% (see Appendix 4) energy consumption which is equivalent to €43,920 (see Appendix 4) and also CO2 emission annually.
Practical Implementation at home:
Like in case study and PDCA cycle of ISO 14000, I too first assessed the areas where energy consumption is more. The maximum were in electric water heater, room air conditioner and inside-outside house lighting.
In case of electric water heater / geyser, once the water is heated to its maximum temperature, it start losing heat while kept in standing condition (South Africa. North-West University, 2016), accordingly I noticed that my geyser was having standing loss of 0.587 unit with 10 ltr. capacity. After accumulating information I could know that the standing time loss mainly depends on the size of geyser and the insulating material used, so replaced the old one and currently installed 6 ltr. capacity geyser which is giving standing loss of 0.280 unit only. This resulted in control heat loss by around 50% and hence reduction in power consumption.
Now for room air conditioner, the main effecting factor is Energy Efficiency Ratio (ERR) measured in BTU/Watt.Hour. So accordingly replaced the old with new one by better ERR, which means less energy is consumed to produce same cooling effect in equivalent room volume.
Then last but not the least the inside and outside house lighting, the old fluorescent bulbs were having mercury and also used to consume 1 watt for every 60 lux of illumination was having environmental issue while disposing and also consume more energy. Replaced these lights with LED which does not contain mercury, so reduces the disposal issue and also provides 110-120 lux illumination per watt of power consumption. Moreover the life of LED is around 25K-50K hours compared to 10K-15K of old florescent bulbs.
So as a result by adopting above changes, I could save power consumption and also used non environment impacting items.
Now to conclude above discussion, the ISO 5000 provides information regarding various steps and stages of manufacturing and tests and by conducting the same at manufacturer’s shop with proper certification, the customer can be rest assured of getting delivered the desired quality material for their further use.
ISO 14000 can be used in part or as a whole, irrespective of the size of an organization, it can help in taking some proactive steps to have positive impacts on environment or at least protect from negative impacts of their production on environment. An organization can obtain this certification by self-declaring and getting audited and certified by third party recognized by ISO.
Energy is our need and to allow our future generations to enjoy its benefits, we need to conserve it and use properly by minimizing wastage. It also helps in controlling the operation expenditure irrespective of its location in office, plants or at house. We must always use PDCA cycle to continuously optimize the energy consumption by using our own common sense and various latest technologies available. Adequate energy conservation can be obtained by proper education, using efficient technologies and having self-responsibility towards environment.
Switzerland. International Organization for Standardization (2015). ISO 5000:2011. [Online]. Available at: https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:5000:ed-4:v1:en (Accessed 22 February 2017).
Switzerland. International Organization for Standardization (2015). ISO 5000:1980. [Online]. Available at: http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_ics/catalogue_detail_ics.htm?csnumber=11009 (Accessed 22 February 2017).
Switzerland. International Organization for Standardization (2015). ISO 5000:1993. [Online]. Available at: http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_ics/catalogue_detail_ics.htm?csnumber=11010 (Accessed 22 February 2017).
Switzerland. International Organization for Standardization (2015). ISO 5000:2005. [Online]. Available at: http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_ics/catalogue_detail_ics.htm?csnumber=30953 (Accessed 22 February 2017).
Kuwait. Arab Industrial Development and Mining Organization (2017). AIDMO ISO_5000_2011(E) PD KUWAIT 23. [Online]. Available at: http://www.aidmo.org/smc/index2.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=1545&Itemid=225 (Accessed 22 February 2017).
Switzerland. International Organization for Standardization (2015). ISO 14000. [Online]. Available at: http://www.iso.org/iso/iso14000 (Accessed 22 February 2017).
USA. American Society for Quality (2017). Learn About Standards, ISO 14000. [Online]. Available at: http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/iso-14000/ (Accessed 22 February 2017).
Switzerland. International Organization for Standardization (2015). Standards Catalogue, ISO/TC 207 – Environmental management. [Online]. Available at: http://www.iso.org/iso/home/store/catalogue_tc/catalogue_tc_browse.htm?commid=54808&published=on&includesc=true (Accessed 22 February 2017).
Switzerland. International Organization for Standardization (2015). Environmental management, The ISO 14000 family of International Standards. [Online]. Available at: http://www.iso.org/iso/theiso14000family_2009.pdf (Accessed 22 February 2017).
Martincic, C. (1997). IV. ISO 14000 Overview. [Online]. Available at: http://www.sis.pitt.edu/mbsclass/standards/martincic/14000ovr.htm (Accessed 22 February 2017).
Dublin. Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (2017). Case study: Total Produce. [Online]. Available at: http://www.seai.ie/Your_Business/Case-Studies/ (Accessed 22 February 2017).
South Africa. North-West University (2016). Faculty of Engineering, Practical Guidelines on how to save energy at home. [Online]. Available at: http://www.nwu.ac.za/faculty-engineering-energy-saving-home-water-heating-systems (Accessed 22 February 2017).
TechTarget (2017). ISO 14000 and 14001. [Online]. Available at: http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/ISO-14000-and-14001 (Accessed 22 February 2017).
JFE. (2017). Cold rolled steel sheet. [Online]. Available at: http://www.jfe-steel.co.jp/en/products/sheets/catalog/b1e-002.pdf (Accessed 22 February 2017).
Cheeho.cn. (2017). Knowledge of cold rolled steel. [Online]. Available at: http://www.cheeho.cn/knowledge/cold-rolled-steel/ (Accessed 22 February 2017).
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