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– Explain how the theory or conceptual frameworks are used to direct research studies. Please use the 4 ways of knowing in answering the question.
“Critical Analysis/Ways of Knowing”
Aesthetic knowing is, “the nurse’s perception of the patient and the patient’s needs” (Cipriano, 2007). Tucker (2015) describes this way of knowing as, “love in action”. When I review your posts and responses, I will be looking for evidence that you are effectively perceiving the client’s needs. Remember, your “client” can be an individual, a family, or even a community. Emerge with new meaning beyond what is possible or previously known.
For example, you may want to start your sentences with:
In terms of aesthetic knowing, I personally think… I professionally think…It is significant that… From an aesthetic knowing point of view, awareness of this unique situation involves…
Personal knowing is looking at the person as a whole being. Your writing reflects this way of knowing when you show that you understand what a client may be experiencing as well as the special relationship that we have with our clients. Empathy is a key concept for this way of knowing (Tucker, 2015). Acknowledge feelings, understanding, and self-knowledge.
For example, you may want to start your sentences with:
In terms of personal knowing, I feel that… I had an experience that…I understand that…I acknowledge that…I have an example to share…
Ethical knowing is used in your writing when you call attention to morals and values. Tucker considers this way of knowing the most difficult to address in healthcare because we all have, “different values and expectations” (2015). Question traditions, make responsible judgments, show tolerance and respect, uphold values and virtues
For example, you may want to start your sentences with:
In terms of ethical knowing, I respect that… I uphold values and virtues by…Traditionally… Responsible judgement here is…
Empiric knowing is perhaps the way of knowing with which you are most familiar. This is evidence-based nursing. You reflect this way of knowing when you use the literature to support your thought and opinions. Integrate scholarly evidence, best practices, literature and/or readings; substantiate with relevance to theories and underlying principles in nursing and related disciplines.
For example, you may want to start your sentences with:
In terms of empiric knowing, evidence shows … (include citations here). Our readings…(include citations here). One solution to this problem is… (include citations here). One theory that supports this idea is… (include citations here). Best practice is…(include citations here). One way to overcome this challenge is…(include citations here).
Initial discussion response should include APA level one heading in bold pointing out what way of knowing you are using. Here is an example of using all 4 Ways of Knowing in initial response:
Aesthetic Knowing
From an aesthetic knowing point of view, awareness of this unique situation involves realizing the importance of productive work environments, teamwork, being supportive of other nurses and interdisciplinary staff makes for a more positive and productive work experience. I feel like there is not enough positive reinforcement from management and among each other. Morale in the workplace is a recurring issue. Effective leaders are characterized as inspirational, creative, and authentic, upholding the values within any organization, as well as having a genuine appreciation of the people within it.
Personal Knowing
In terms of personal knowing, I had an experience that I would like help to change the culture of nursing by shifting the morale in the workplace. New nursing graduates and nursing students are complaining of not feeling welcome on the units feel like “nurses eat their young”. The seasoned nurses are over stressed, overworked, and there is often a negative tense atmosphere. I do my small part by not participating in the culture of eating the young and offer encouragement to the students and don’t mind orienting them to the unit. Also, I make a conscious effort to be helpful, and demonstrate appreciation for all the hard work all of the nurses and other healthcare workers are doing. My hope is that others will adopt the same attitude and hopefully the culture of nursing will evolve into a more supportive environment. The turnover rate and level of dissatisfaction among nursing in my facility is high and it surely effects patient care.
Ethical Knowing
I uphold values and virtues by ensuring core values of caring, respect, compassion, and empowerment are present within the work environment. I show tolerance and respect for my colleagues and patients by creating an environment of community and belonging through connectedness, awareness, and acceptance.
Empiric Knowing
One theory that supports this idea is Watson’s Human Care Theory by accepting diversity of persons, ideas, and choices differing from one’s own in my workplace environment. Watson (1989) stated that “the ethic of caring provides an expanded context for nursing education by calling upon the highest ethical self in the process of an evolving consciousness” (p. 53). There has been numerous studies about workplace satisfaction related to better patient outcomes. Satisfaction in the workplace is a result of nursing involvement in decision-making, and promoting collaborative transpersonal relationships. This study found “Nurses shared perceptions of structural empowerment on their units indirectly influenced their shared perceptions of unit effectiveness” (Spence Laschinger, Nosko, Wilk, & Finegan, 2014, p.1616). Another insightful study from our assigned readings this week, was conducted by Williams, McDowell, and Kautz, (2012), who found that holistic human caring embraces every individual and can be used as an approach to educating interdisciplinary healthcare providers on the importance of and need for compassionate care.
Spence Laschinger, H. K., Nosko, A., Wilk, P., & Finegan, J. (2014). Effects of unit empowerment and perceived support for professional nursing practice on unit effectiveness and individual nurse well-being: A time-lagged study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 511615-1623. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2014.04.010
Watson, J. (1989). Transformative thinking and a caring curriculum. In E.O. Bevis & J. Watson (Eds.), Towards a caring curriculum: A new pedagogy for nursing (pp. 51-60). New York: National League for Nursing.
Williams II, R., McDowell, J., & Kautz, D. (2011). A caring leadership model for nursing’s future. International Journal for Human Caring, 15(1), 31-35 5p.
Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2014). Essentials of nursing research: Appraising evidence for nursing practice (8th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Winters, C. A., & Echeverri, R. (2012). Teaching strategies to support evidenced based practice. Critical Care Nurse, 32(3), 49 – 54. doi: 10.4037/ccn2012159

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