100% Original, Plagiarism Free, Tailored to your instructions

Order Now!


The Legacy of Event Evaluation in the Context of Hosting Beijing Olympic Game
Research Proposal
The award of 2008 Summer Olympic Games to Beijing indicated the promise of rejuvenation of the entire Beijing territory into the largest new city improvement ever seen in Eastern Asia (Gratton & Preuss 2008). The Olympic Delivery Authority assured the renewal and re-establishment of waterways, parklands, new donning areas, parkways, utilities, bridges and to construct 40,000 additional houses. The first guarantee for Beijing was to facilitate communal utilization of amenities after the games. This was an aspect never seen in previous Olympics.
The aim of this paper is to critically appraise the legacy of event evaluation in the context of hosting Beijing Olympic Game. The best practice framework will be developed in consideration of a blend of secondary and primary information. To begin with, first-hand information will investigate the significance of stakeholders and inhabitants’ role in influencing the scheduling of the occasion. Next, second hand information will concentrate on evaluating previous mega occasions. The findings from secondary and primary information will be integrated into a ‘best practice’ framework and combined with the activities that were accomplished in Beijing in 2008 to make an Olympic Legacy Administration Stakeholder model.
This research proposal is sectioned into the following chapters: a) historical background, b) Aim, c) Objectives, d) Research questions, e) Methodology, f) Literature Review, and g) Structure of the project.
The Historical Background
While a number of examples from previous 116 decades of Olympics prevail, this study will focus on Beijing Olympics of 2008. Research is emerging from Barcelona Olympics of 1992 with regards to housing problems and several associated adverse effects (Jurowski 1994), but Beijing has been selected because of its reputation of showing good practice in Olympic cycle of planning. The ‘Beijing Framework’ is a recommended regeneration model for utilization in future planning of mega-occasions (Jurowski, Uysal & Williams 1997; Kaplanidou 2009; Kaplanidou & Vogt 2007). It is also famous because of its using of community and domestic governance model. The rationale behind this study is to examine Beijing’s legacy in 2008 Olympics supposed by periphery city inhabitants almost five decades subsequent to the Sports and how such viewpoints would influence the attitude towards hosting future Games.

To come up with a model of city regeneration legacy in the context of hosting Beijing Olympic Games.


To critically evaluate the role of Beijing’s 2008 Olympic legacy, specifically referring to the long-standing favourable societal advantages in favour of the host domestic community
To examine who are the domestic host neighbourhoods impacted by Beijing’s 2008 Olympics
To break down the usage of stakeholder conjecture to the public participation in the legacy of Beijing Olympics programs, wherein the public are dynamic stakeholders
To critically assess ‘best practice’ models of Olympic metropolitan regeneration in which the public obtain favourable long-lasting social advantages

Research questions

What was Beijing Olympics’ legacy as professed by periphery nationals?
2. What is the effect of professed legacy on mind-set towards staging of Olympics?

An experiential examination study will be performed whereby data will be gathered from 469 Shanghai residents using organized questionnaires.
Literature review
The review of literature will be subdivided into two 2 major parts: evaluation of earlier research on social legacies of extra-large occasions and the legacy history of Olympics. An assessment of pervious writing on Stakeholder city-renewal alongside their accompanied conflicts of power will be assessed here.
Structure of the project
The thesis structure will be as follows:

Introduction and background of the study

The impact of the study

Literature review
Research question


Data analysis


Table of Contents
Abstract 7
Introduction and background of the study. 8
Impact of the study. 9
Literature review.. 10
Research questions. 11
Aim.. 11
Objectives. 11
Methodology. 12
Data analysis. 12
Results. 12
General respondents’ profile: 12
Factor analysis. 13
Perceived legacy of hosting Olympics. 15
Impacts of professed legacy onto locals assistance for Olympic Games. 15
Discussion. 15
Conclusion. 16
Implications. 17
Bibliography. 18

This article explores the perceived legacy of the 2008 Beijing Olympics by periphery urban residents about five decades after the event and how such viewpoints would impact the mind-set towards future hosting of sports. Empirical surveys were performed whereby data was assembled from 469 Shanghai residents. This was done through organized questionnaires. An exploratory factor evaluation identified seven factors basic to the alleged legacy of the 2008 Beijing Olympics: ‘Psychic revenue and societal capital’, ‘Skills and infrastructure enhancement’, ‘Cooperation and networks’, ‘Environment’, ‘Economies and tourism’, ‘Game and fitness’, and ‘Culture and identity’. The results indicated that the perceived level of legacy was considerably higher than the mean on all dimensions. Quite the opposite, current literature of western milieu showed that on various aspects, figures were under the average mark, connoting that the residents’ cultural and economic backgrounds would have a big difference. The research also proved that the professed legacy could positively affect the mind-set of residents towards future hosting of Olympics, further underscoring the significance of sustainable legacy of Olympics leverage. This study’s findings informs on the risk of underrating the endeavour needed by occasion-planners to make use of the legacy and change discernment of host metropolis reputation. More has to be accomplished such as safeguarding event privileges, and consulting nationwide and foreign audiences specifically in the emergent world.

Introduction and background of the study
Olympics attract significant monetary, political, and social importance (Gratton, Shibli & Coleman 2005). Also, it is an impetus for city refurbishment and financial development (Glynn 2008; and Gratton, Ramchandani & Wilson 2012). Conversely, rivalry of staging Olympic Games went down with eleven nations offering to host the 2008 Olympics to five nations for 2010 Olympics (Girginov & Parry 2005). Though an effectual offer is anticipated to bring about large investments in gaming amenities and good facilities to advance economic activities (Getz 2005), there are examples like the 20004 Olympic Games of Athen which resulted in financial damage as opposed to the monetary success and wealth that is frequently expected.
After Beijing obtained a license to stage the 2008 Summer Olympics, it got worldwide concentration. The effectual offer carried with it open doors for China to prove to mankind that it was prepared for financial growth and reconstruction of a historical backdrop full of socialist regime (Economy & Segal 2008). Fredline (2004) investigated the advantages that Chinese individuals looked for from recreations with the mounting acknowledgment that the occasion would lead to tremendous advantages. Tourism and travel was anticipated to ascend to greater levels, new facilities would be constructed, bedraggled buildings and communities tidied up, metro lines built. Moreover, a large venture in city upgrade would start (including another air terminal, tram line as well as business houses) and several new plants for treating air and water and water source warm pump systems would get configured to eliminate air contamination and water deficiencies (Deccio & Baloglu 2002). It is this evidence that demonstrates the existence of a movement en route for bidding from developing nations, which likewise has lead to a move far from an only focus on monetary advantages to a technique for utilizing and toppling negative discernments overseas. New States, for example, Russia, Brazil, and China have as of late been extremely dynamic in effectively offering for mega occasions like Winter and Summer Olympic Games and Soccer World Cup.
The legislature started a program to alter the conduct and also to modernize Beijing city including laws to prevent littering, smocking, spitting, line hopping and rude manner. It started measures to correct the wrong interpretations of English on menus and signs and also offered training on English dialect to contractors, for example, cab drivers.
In contrast, disturbances on light relay and selling of polluted infant recipe, which prompted to the passing away of many kids because of a misleading advertising. These problems together with the city and national regime’s strategy for Olympic Games caused a reduction of expectations by the populace (Lee et al., 2012).
Mega occasions have exceptional qualities that bring uncommon opportunities and challenges that affect the host and the periphery occupants. Periphery city occupants will be impacted by large-scale events because of their scope and size and the global expectation they come with. While broad research has been done on local inhabitants’ impression of the legacy of grant occasions, there is limited literature on tourism and event, which analyzes the view of periphery urban occupants (Dobson 2000). For that reason, this research aims at inspecting the legacy of the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics expected by residents of Shanghai.
Impact of the study
The study of locals, and periphery inhabitants, and expectations of super-event impacts may be helpful because they can help uncover the authentic size of whichever legacy event. Such expectations frequently change in due course since the projected impact of standards of living varies (Dobson 2000). This informs on a developing significance of studying occupants’ viewpoint because the findings can determine the path of occasion-planning advisory groups and community governments when they schedule and execute their activity programs. Actually, a comprehension of the significance of the impact of legacy can guarantee that constructive legacies are utilized and unconstructive legacies minimized, and also that all issues about improvement of amenities and infrastructure are facilitated (Chalip, Green & Hill 2003).
Literature review
The advantages of facilitating mega-game activities have turn out to be a growing subject of controversy in the literature of game activity management with an assortment of advantages being mentioned for host urban areas. More writing has centred on real effects, especially the monetary effects (Chappelet, 2012; Chappelet 2013; Chappelet & Junod 2006; and Crompton 2001), on the perception that various guests travel and use huge amounts of money amid their tour. Conversely, a conspicuous difference to the financial effects, cultural and social effects are frequently less real but also very much covered (Chalip 2004; and Chalip & Costa 2005) with relatively a couple claiming that social advantages might be bigger in the end when compared with the fleeting monetary benefits an urban center can get (Chappelet 2008). In fact, as indicated by Cashman (2005), the significance of emotional advantages has been perceived in event-planning and tourism fields. It’s sensible to anticipate that the effectual facilitating of Olympics ought to have the capacity to bring about a colossal capital alongside pride as proposed by several writers (BOCOG 2007; and Bull & Lovell 2007). For some Chinese, such pride was additionally increased because the staging of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games has widely been discussed in social networks after their dream of hosting finally got achieved (Barker, Page & Meyer 2002).
The negative and positive legacies at this point are varied and wide. Nonetheless, because of the method of reasoning provided by Barker (2004) that grant occasions benefit the nation and international countries, it is fundamental that the views of such legacies are all the more experimentally comprehended especially by individuals in border social orders. The comprehension of periphery occupants’ view of the legacies can help to affirm if some of the proof given is seen by border community many years after the sports
Research questions
The research questions for the study included:

What was Beijing Olympics’ legacy professed by periphery nationals?
What is the effect of professed legacy on mind-set towards staging of Olympics?

The major aim of the study was:

To come up with a model of city regeneration legacy in the context of hosting Beijing Olympic Games.

The objectives used for the study were:

To critically evaluate the role of Beijing’s 2008 Olympic legacy, specifically referring to the long-standing favourable societal advantages in favour of the host domestic community
To examine who are the domestic host neighbourhoods impacted by Beijing’s 2008 Olympics
To break down the usage of stakeholder conjecture to the public participation in the legacy of Beijing Olympics programs, wherein the public are dynamic stakeholders
To critically assess ‘best practice’ models of Olympic metropolitan regeneration in which the public obtain favourable long-lasting social advantages

An experimental assessment research was performed whereby information was gathered from Shanghai inhabitants from 4th to 11th 2016 December. Shanghai inhabitants were selected for expediencypurposes comprising reaching to people and assets needed for study participants. Five equipped undergrads were placed in different open areas (for example, shopping centres, outlets, shops, recreation centres and university grounds) in the city of Shanghai to gather information using individual organized polls. Information was assembled in every locale amid different durations at day time and separate week days. Respondents were stopped and filter questions were utilized to spot local inhabitants. Respondents who admitted to finish the survey were appreciated and given a reward. In general, the poll took 420 seconds to finish. Altogether, 469 surveys were allocated and gathered with 14 unfinished bringing about 455 helpful polls for more examination.
Data analysis
SPSS version 15 was employed to evaluate the expected legacy of the 2008 Olympic Games using computation of regressive and descriptive statistics, EFA, one test sample, and also regression analysis.
General respondents’ profile:
This profile is presented table one below. In the survey, 50.33 percent were men and 49.72 percent were ladies and the group that was largely represented was aged 26 to 35 (25.14 percent). It demonstrated that 97.82 percent of participants had viewed live reporting of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, while 2.21 percent did not.
Factor analysis
The EFA loading matrix for the eventual result is shown in table two below. An aggregate of thirty-five items were loaded in the 7 factors that had eight figures exceeding one. Such 7 variables accounted for 64 percent of variance. These 7 variables were ‘Psychic revenue and societal capital’ (8 items), ‘Skills and infrastructure improvement’ (7 items), ‘Cooperation and networks’ (6 items), ‘Surroundings’ (4 items), ‘Economics and tourism’ (four items), ‘Game and fitness’ (3 items) along with ‘Culture and identity’ (3 items)
Perceived legacy of hosting Olympics
Sample tests were performed to mirror the anticipated legacy levels on different aspects. Table three illustrates that every factor is significantly above the indifference point even decades subsequent to the Olympics with variable seven (‘Culture and identity’) scoring first, trailed by variables one, three, two, six, five, in that order. Rank for variable four (‘Environment’) involved the lowest.
Impacts of professed legacy onto locals assistance for Olympic Games
All 7 destination image variables were keyed in a manifold regression analysis for predicting attitude toward Beijing’s 2008 Olympic Games. The findings (Table four) uncovered that 5 out of 7 variables were largely (R2 = .3321; F = 44.5357; p < 0.001) extrapolative of attitude towards Beijing’s 2008 Olympic Games with an aggregate of 33.27 percent variance justified. Factor four (‘Environment’) along with factor six (‘Health and Sport’) didn’t influence attitude. Discussion The outcomes demonstrated that participants saw an extensive variety of impacts of the legacy of the 2008 Beijing Olympics. In score order, that is, the larger first, these effects were: ‘Culture and Identity’, ‘Psychic revenue with societal capital’, ‘Cooperation and networks’, ‘Skills and Infrastructure improvement’, ‘Wellbeing and Sport’, ‘Economics and tourism’ and ‘Surroundings’. It is said that in due course, the immaterial gains, for example, psychological gains and psychic profits would emerge and still exceed the monetary advantages and facility improvement. Respondents seemed irresolute concerning the improvement of Chinese global reputation and image.  In lots of ways the above results align with the current literature and clarify the use of the ecological impact aspect. Throughout the previous year, there was an increasing public interest about ecological effluence and this made IOC to incorporate the ecological impact as the 3rd field of Olympics’ Global Effect program started during 2000 (Agha, Fairley & Gibson 2012). It is thus essential to consider that periphery communities taking part in the survey perceived that Beijing Olympics had a constructive effect on general familiarity of ecological preservation, the utilization and comprehension of environmental innovation, an unambiguous augment in government’s venture in green preservation and green lifestyle promotion. Conclusion Using Beijing’s 2008 Olympics as an illustration, the major rationale for this research was to examine the legacy of the 2008 Beijing Olympics as expected by the peripheral urban inhabitants. For this reason, locals came from Shanghai city. Likewise, this thesis also aimed at determining if supposed legacy could affect the inhabitants’ state of mind to future hosting of the Games. A research of this type can assist to gauge the impact of the legacy thereby providing lessons for event organizers to make effective and potential bidding bustle (Andereck et al 2007). Implications The findings of this study illuminates on the risk of underrating the endeavour needed by activity planners to make use of the legacy and change discernment of host metropolis image. More requires to be done including protecting event privileges after the activity, and consulting nationwide and foreign audiences specifically in emergent world.     Bibliography Agha, N., Fairley, S., & Gibson, H., 2012, Considering legacy as a multi-dimensional construct: The legacy of the Olympic Games. Sport Management Review, 15(1), 125–139. doi:10.1016/j.smr.2011.08.004 Andereck, K. L., Valentine, K., Vogt, C., & Knopf, R., 2007, A cross-cultural analysis of tourism and quality of life perceptions. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15, 483–500. doi:10.2167/ jost612.0 Barker, M., 2004, Crime and sport events tourism: The 1999–2000 America’s Cup. In B. Ritchie & D. Adair (Eds.), Sport tourism: Interrelationships, impacts and issues (pp. 174–191).Clevedon: Channel View. Barker, M., Page, S. J., & Meyer, D.,2002, Modelling tourism crime: The 2000 America’s cup. Annals of Tourism Research, 29, 762–782. doi:10.1016/S0160-7383(01)00079-2 BOCOG., 2007, ‘In Beijing, Olympics prompt infrastructure development and better quality of life’. Retrieved from http://en.beijing2008.cn/news/dynamics/headlines/n214204287.shtml Bull, C., & Lovell, J., 2007, The impact of hosting major sporting events on local residents: An analysis of the views and perceptions of Canterbury residents in relation to the Tour de France 2007. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 12, 229–248. doi:10.1080/14775080701736973 Cashman, R., 2005, The bitter-sweet awakening. The legacy of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. Sydney: Walla Walla Press. Chalip, L., & Costa, C., 2005, Sport event tourism and the destination brand: Towards a general theory. Sport in Society,8, 218–237. doi:10.1080/17430430500108579 Chalip, L., 2004, Beyond economic impact: A general model for sport event leverage. In B. Ricthie, & D. Adair (Eds.), Sport tourism: Interrelationships, impacts and issues (pp. 226–252).Clevedon: Channel View. Chalip, L., Green, B. C., & Hill, B., 2003, Effects of sport event media on destination image and intention to visit. Journal of Sport Management, 17, 214–234. Chappelet, J., &Junod, T., 2006, A tale of 3 Olympic cities: What can Turin learn from the Olympic legacy of other Alpine cities. Major Sport Events as Opportunity for Development.Valencia: Valencia Summit proceedings. Chappelet, J.-L., 2008, Olympic environmental concerns as a legacy of the Winter Games.The International Journal of the History of Sport, 25, 1884–1902. doi:10.1080/09523360802438991 Chappelet, J.-L., 2012, Mega sporting event legacy: A multifaceted concept. Papers of Europe, 25, 76–86. Chappelet, J.-L., 2013, Managing the size of the Olympic Games. Sport in Society, 16, 581–592. Crompton, J. L., 2001, Public subsidies to professional team sport facilities in the USA. In C. Gratton& I. Henry (Eds.), Sport in the city: The role of sport in economic and social regeneration (pp. 15–34).London: Routledge. Deccio, C., &Baloglu, S., 2002, Nonhost community resident reactions to the 2002 Winter Games: The spillover impacts. Journal of Travel Research, 41(1), 46–56. doi:10.1177/0047287502041001006 Dobson, N., 2000, The economic impact of Major sport events: A case study of Sheffield (Unpublished PhD thesis).Sheffield: Sheffield Hallam University. Economy, E. C., & Segal, A., 2008, China’s Olympic nightmare. Foreign Affairs, 87(4), 47–56. Fredline, E., 2004, Host community reactions to motorsports events: The perception of impact on quality of life. In B. Richie & D. Adair (Eds.), Sport tourism: Interrelationships, impacts and issues (pp. 155–173).Clevedon: Channel View. Getz, D., 2005, Festivals, special events and tourism. New York, NY: Van Nostrand. Girginov, V., & Parry, J., 2005, The Olympic Games explained: A student guide to the evolution of the modern Olympic Games. London: Routledge. Glynn, M. A., 2008,. Configuring the field of play: How hosting the Olympic Games impacts civic community. Journal of Management Studies, 45, 1117–1146. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6486.2008. 00785.x Gratton, C., &Preuss, H. (2008).Maximizing Olympic impacts by building up legacies.The International Journal of the History of Sport, 25, 1922–1938. doi:10.1080/09523360802439023 Gratton, C., Liu, D., Ramchandani, G., & Wilson, D., 2012, The global economics of sport. London: Routledge. Gratton, C., Shibli, S., & Coleman, R. (2005).Sport and economic regeneration in cities. Urban Studies, 42, 985–999. doi:10.1080/00420980500107045 Guala, A., & Turco, D. (2009).Resident perceptions of the 2006 Torino Olympic Games: 2002– 2007.Sport Management International Journal, 5(2), 21–42. Jurowski, C. (1994). The interplay of elements affecting host community resident attitudes toward tourism: A path analytic approach (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg. Jurowski, C., Uysal, M., and Williams, D. R. (1997).A theoretical analysis of host community resident reactions to tourism. Journal of Travel Research, 36(2), 3–11. Kaplanidou, K. (2009). Relationships among behavioural intentions, cognitive event and destination images among different geographic regions of Olympic Games spectators. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 14, 249–272.  doi:10.1080/14775080903453815 Kaplanidou, K., & Vogt, C. (2007).The interrelationship between sport event and destination image and sport tourists’ behaviours.” Journal of Sport & Tourism, 12, 183–206. doi:10.1080/14775080 701736932      

Our Service Charter

  1. Excellent Quality / 100% Plagiarism-Free

    We employ a number of measures to ensure top quality essays. The papers go through a system of quality control prior to delivery. We run plagiarism checks on each paper to ensure that they will be 100% plagiarism-free. So, only clean copies hit customers’ emails. We also never resell the papers completed by our writers. So, once it is checked using a plagiarism checker, the paper will be unique. Speaking of the academic writing standards, we will stick to the assignment brief given by the customer and assign the perfect writer. By saying “the perfect writer” we mean the one having an academic degree in the customer’s study field and positive feedback from other customers.
  2. Free Revisions

    We keep the quality bar of all papers high. But in case you need some extra brilliance to the paper, here’s what to do. First of all, you can choose a top writer. It means that we will assign an expert with a degree in your subject. And secondly, you can rely on our editing services. Our editors will revise your papers, checking whether or not they comply with high standards of academic writing. In addition, editing entails adjusting content if it’s off the topic, adding more sources, refining the language style, and making sure the referencing style is followed.
  3. Confidentiality / 100% No Disclosure

    We make sure that clients’ personal data remains confidential and is not exploited for any purposes beyond those related to our services. We only ask you to provide us with the information that is required to produce the paper according to your writing needs. Please note that the payment info is protected as well. Feel free to refer to the support team for more information about our payment methods. The fact that you used our service is kept secret due to the advanced security standards. So, you can be sure that no one will find out that you got a paper from our writing service.
  4. Money Back Guarantee

    If the writer doesn’t address all the questions on your assignment brief or the delivered paper appears to be off the topic, you can ask for a refund. Or, if it is applicable, you can opt in for free revision within 14-30 days, depending on your paper’s length. The revision or refund request should be sent within 14 days after delivery. The customer gets 100% money-back in case they haven't downloaded the paper. All approved refunds will be returned to the customer’s credit card or Bonus Balance in a form of store credit. Take a note that we will send an extra compensation if the customers goes with a store credit.
  5. 24/7 Customer Support

    We have a support team working 24/7 ready to give your issue concerning the order their immediate attention. If you have any questions about the ordering process, communication with the writer, payment options, feel free to join live chat. Be sure to get a fast response. They can also give you the exact price quote, taking into account the timing, desired academic level of the paper, and the number of pages.

Excellent Quality
Zero Plagiarism
Expert Writers

Instant Quote

Single spaced
approx 275 words per page
Urgency (Less urgent, less costly):
Total Cost: NaN

Get 10% Off on your 1st order!