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IIII: Methodology
-Case Study Research Design
-Participants and Sampling ( including demographics)
-Data Sources
– Data Gathering Procedures
-Data Analysis Design
– Reliability and Validity Considerations
Proposed research design
This study will be conducted in a clinical setting. It will use a qualitative method to explore the counselors’ experience in trying to integrate Mindfulness with Solution Focus Brief Therapy (SFBT). From a broader perspective, the qualitative study focuses on discovering the meaning of counselors experience while using non-pharmacological interventions. Counselors will provide firsthand accounts of experiences centered on the impact, assumptions, and limitations of SBFT, of Mindfulness, and of a combination of the two. Following the Case Study approach, the study seeks to bring out the assumptions, limitations, and effects of SFBT and Mindfulness therapies. Most importantly, data about the impact of integrating SFBT with Mindfulness in the qualitative study will be expressed using words that describe Trainers, Counselors’ and clients’ feelings, attitudes, and behaviors. The data consist of interview transcripts from counselors as well as journals from observations made by the participants.
As aforementioned, the study will be conducted in a Clinical setting center in USA Florida, a region with a predominantly Hispanic and African American population in low Socioeconomic (SES) status. Counselors’ experience from short SFBT sessions will be designed to stand alone to avoid unexpected obstructive effects. Further, their experiences while trying to integrate Mindfulness with SFBT will be captured.
A purposeful sample will be used for this study comprising of professional counselors. To be eligible, counselors must be above 18 years and have experience using non-pharmacological intervention to psychological problems. Further, counselors will be recruited through the agency based in the region (Florida). The participants must adequately speak and write in English to complete all measures attached to the study. Ideally, the counselors’ experience trying to integrate new non-pharmacological interventions to the already existing ones will be the center of attraction. The counselors’ experience in integrating Mindfulness with Solution focus therapy will be of major concern. Before participating, each participant will be required to read and sign an informed consent form, and they will be assured absolute anonymity. As such, to ensure credibility, ethical approval will be acquired from the Institutional Research Board (IRB) coupled with written informed consent obtained from the counselors.
With the help of recruiting agents, purposeful sampling will be used to aid in recruitment of participants for this study. Typically, purposeful sampling is largely deployed in qualitative research. It entails selection of research participants based on the study needs. As such, the recruiting agent will choose participants who provide rich information that suits a detailed research. The primary selection criteria for inclusion will be ‘all participants must hold a Master’s degree in Psychology or a related field from a recognized higher learning institution and work as an intern attached to a recognized family therapy center or be licensed; additionally they must possess an ability to articulate their experiences as they relate to the investigated phenomena, i.e., using non-pharmacological intervention (SFBT and Mindfulness).’ The sampling frame will comprise of 10 -20 counselors bearing experience in SFBT and Mindfulness or until the researcher has reached saturation.
Other inclusion criteria will include

Previous experience of counseling featuring patient with a complete episode of Major Depression lasting for a period not less than two years
Used SFTB and Mindful therapy to treat the above case
Past experience will be characterized by diagnosis of Major Depression following a full episode that either meets DSM-V criteria for at least five symptoms of depression for a period of last two weeks or suffering from more than five symptoms for at least half of the days.
Participating counselors should be have earned or is earning a Masters degree in Mental Health and/or Marriage and Family Therapy.

Data collection procedures
Participating counselors will be required to journal their experience while trying to integrate Mindfulness with SFBT. To ensure the journals capture intended information, a protocol consisting of a written questionnaire will act as a guide. The questionnaire will be given to each participant. In simple terms, the questionnaire guides the participating counselors in journaling about their experience with solution brief focus therapy criteria as well capturing the integration of Mindfulness to SFBT. The set of questions ensure consistency of experience captured in journal.
Upon the completion of the journal, an interview will be conducted aimed at discussing what features in their journals and asking the participants to elucidate their ideas in a more detailed and elaborated manner. The interviewing process will begin with unstructured questions such as “What has it been like to be a therapist?” The study is anticipated to comprise of a single interview and any follow-up interviews if needed. Additionally, follow-up clarifying interviews might be conducted after data analysis.
Typically, the non-directive interviewing approach will use open-ended questions, affording the participants freedom to control interview pacing. Additionally, a more directive style of questioning will be used when clarity of information is required. Typically, with participants’ permission, the interviews will be record in an audiotape as well as hand-written notes. Further, all audio-recorded interviews are expected to range from 45 to 55 minutes in length. The study guide will feature the following prompts geared towards eliciting participants’ views and experiences:

Benefits of Solution Focus Brief Therapy
Solution Focus Brief Therapy limitations and assumptions
Benefits or areas of improvement achieved by combining Solution Focus Brief
Therapy and Mindfulness Therapy in counseling practice

Instrumentation and/or materials
NVivo will be deployed in this study. NVivo is a software program that uses a coding system. It has been designed for qualitative researchers working with very rich text-based and/or multimedia information, where deep levels of analysis on small or large volumes of data are required. The Researcher will place a situation in its full context to provide an account that is rich, holistic, and multi-faced. Further, the research uses a questionnaire, which is a research instrument that features a set of questions aimed at gathering data from respondents representing a targeted population. Typically, questionnaires are preferred because they are cheap and do not necessary require any questioner. They consist of standardized answers making, which makes them simple to compile. Additionally, colored pens for marking the hard copies using letters and numbers will be required.
Process to ensure dependable and credible results
To ensure that the data from the interview are valid and reliable, a “field test” will be conducted featuring 2 key participants. This aims at assessing the type of questions for use during the interview. A comparison between experience captured in the journal and responses provided during the interview will assess face validity. Test-retest will assess reliability. In this case, participants will be asked one or two questions more than once. Further, structuring the same questions in different ways allows for the assessment of internal consistency.
The study will also be grounded on ethical issues that may arise during the qualitative research process. The study revolves around data collection from counselors about their experiences trying to integrate Mindfulness with SFBT while attending to clients. Thus, through developing trust with participants, the integrity of the study is promoted. This further prevents any misconduct that may result in unreliable results.
First and foremost, the researcher will uphold the obligation to respect participants’ rights, values, needs, and desires. A number of measures for safeguarding participants’ rights will be put in place. These include clearly-stated study objectives, written consent forms, as well as information about risk attached to the study and data collection activities. If required, requests for sensitive answers to questions intended to extract meaning from opinions will be made. Additionally, the reputation and position of the participants will be visible because the study findings will be shared through the online platforms, encouraging responsibility and accountability.
Data analysis and interpretations
According to Ritchie and Lewis (2003), data collection and analysis must be a simultaneous process in qualitative research. They affirmed that qualitative data analysis is all about classifying persons, things, events and properties that characterize the study. To illustrate vital structure of an experience in its analysis, the Colaizzi technique makes use of Husserlian phenomenology. It has been deployed to investigate nurse’s experience at work, thus passing the effectiveness test. The Colaizzi’s data analysis method is an appropriate methodology for this study because it focuses on finding the essence and meaning of the experiences of the participants in the use of SFBT and Mindful therapy. Typically, the Colaizzi analysis comprises of a series of procedural steps. First, the researcher will read all participants’ journals and transcribe the data collected from the interviews to get a general sense of the range of ideals presented. Next, significant statements and phrases pertaining to the phenomenon being studied will be extracted from each transcript. Then, meanings will be formulated from the important statements. Further, meanings are organized into themes. These themes result in theme clusters, and ultimately into categories of theme
A color-coded system will be used to highlight specific themes/categories to perform a preliminary analysis. The NVivo will be deployed. Typically, the application deploys a coding system. The system is organized based on a number of topics as well as themes found in audio-recorded files. Further, a scheme of numbers and/or letters will be deployed to assign primary categories and sub-categories. Further, “hard copies” generated from computer files and those produced by participants (journals) will be color-coded using pen with appropriate phrase or numbers. Then, a comprehensive and rich account of the counselors will be formulated. To fabricate a logical rationalization for the themes, triangulation derived from various data sources will be used. Further, the narrative will be illustrated in the findings chapter or section.
Expected results

Benefits and limitations of SFBT

Just like any other intervention, SFBT is surrounded by a number of limitations and assumptions. As such, the counselor experience will provide the limitations that render SFBT partially ineffective in treating psychological disorder. This helps in understanding the areas that require further research. Further, the assumptions governing SFBT will be captured. In terms of benefits, counselors’ experience while using SFBT will offer the impacts of using the approach.

Benefits attached to combining SFBT and Mindful therapy

Benefits attached to integrating Mindfulness with SFBT forms the major focus of the study. In most cases, the limitations attached to SFBT render it partially ineffective. Thus, combining SFBT and Mindfulness can help fully realize the beneficial impacts of both therapies. This will also help build a better understanding of the impact brought by Mindfulness.

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