BUSINESS RESEARCH PROJECT
AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE WILLINGNESS OF WOMEN TO AVOID THE WORKPLACE OF ‘STICKY FLOOR’ AND ‘LEAKY PIPE’
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 Title page
2 Table of contents
4 Analysis of the issue
4.1 Critical analysis
4.1 A Sticky floor
4.2 B Willingness
4.3 Leaky pipe
4.2 Research questions
4.2 A Willingness of women to avoid sticky floor
4.2 B Leaky pipe
5 Practical rationale
6 Exploring the topic further
This business research project will look into many aspects on the low rate of participation by female in top business management puzzles many people. this study will address the main reasons for the low rate, including lack of solidarity among women, norm satisfaction, theories such as sticky floor that hinders women from reaching top managerial position but also This will look at it as a unique perspective on the issue of women in leadership or lack of theory first thought of the title discussion should be why women are not on top in business perspective and the one main question is do women want to be on the top? are we subconsciously holding ourselves back? its either women don’t want to go ahead or being a male dominated, not allowing women into top management position. In the recent years the low proportion of women in board positions and executive management has gained a lot of attention since 1992 a given rise to public discussion. Statics show that higher up the corporate hierarchy the lower the female representation throughout the European Union (EC, 2008). before we ask why this is happening lets identify the problem there is less women in leadership and this problem instead of getting better its getting worse but however they make up 20.7 percent of position in FTSE 100 companies in which 6.9 percent of senior executive roles in FTSE 100 where they are only four women chief executives (Goldsmith, no date). the actual number of women on board in the FTSE 100 has increased with just one male-dominated board remaining but when you look at it closely the majority are non executive roles and that the likelihood of women being appointed to executive position is decreasing as shown in the diagram in the Figure 1 below in the appendices where it compares men and women in company positions and also Figure three shows Female FTSE 100 index and also Figure 4 shows female executives directors in company where we see they are only few executives in FTSE 100
4 ANALYSIS OF THE ISSUE
4.1 CRITICAL ANALYSIS
This report will explore reasons why women are not reaching top managerial positions in companies. This is still a major issue David Mustafa says unfortunately they are still gender barriers in today’s workplace that prevent women in holding high level executives positions (Tacet, 2013). And also Lord Davies report shows women make up a small percentage of numbers (Women on boards Davies Review Annual Report 2014, no date) and also Figure 6 shows the difference between men and women in executive jobs this discussion has gone through many ways on how to deal with this situation. in order to have a clear understanding of the women in management we need to understand the meaning attached to this since 1990s women’s representative amongst executives has doubled and amongst company directors it has tripled. And at the same time there is a increase of women working. however women are still compressed in companies as executive managers.
4.1 A STICKY FLOOR
sticky floor refers to an invisible but powerful barrier that hinders women from rising to top corporative position appears still to exist in many organisations and the main areas for this discussion on why women aren’t making it to the top positions of companies however they may be another explanation for by this is happening which is
4.1 B WILLINGNESS
before we continue we need to look at the meaning of willingness which is the quality or state of being prepared to do something. We have seen many different views on women not reaching the top but if we look at it on another point of view simply women do not want to reach to the top they just don’t want senior positions. due to various different reasons which most are to balance work/life that will be mentioned below in research question where we will see willingness of women to avoid sticky floor. as Jane Dudman says Women who don’t make it to the top are just not clever enough and hardworking enough (Dudman, 2014) also Figure 5 shows top ten FTSE 100 Women also this can lead to negative behavioural in workplace where they aren’t as strong as men in workplace for example failing to promote themselves unless they are asked, underestimating themselves where Serena says women are being paranoid about being perceived as ‘pushy’ as where men are happy to be seen as ‘ballsy’ (Kutchinsky, 2014)
4.2 C LEAKY PIPE
Some theories Suggest of the “leaky pipes” is an alternative explanation to the few women observed in the highest corporation positions which is used to describe women are promoted same extent as men but however experience a slower wage growth upon promotion as Nicky Morgan minister for women and equalities said We have more women in work than ever before, but businesses need to value diversity in their workforce and pay attention to the role of women in their organisations (Dugan, 2014) . This observations leads on to the first sub
4.2 RESEARCH QUESTION
4.2 A. The willingness of women to avoid Sticky floor?
the main questions within this topic we will ask why is this happening? if women are hardworking enough to OutSpace men in work why is it so hard to keep up later on?.
the answer is very complex and yet to be more explored as it is still partly unknown (Kutchinsky, 2014) everyone has their own different view quota are seem as good and some as bad they say women can have it all some say women cant some say women over estimate some underestimate. but by examining news articles and blog we see that women still have to work hard enough and fight tougher then the males.
few women gain access to the highest positions as executives managers of organisation despite some improvements as mentioned above lord Davies said it has improved from 2002 where they made 12.5 % of women where now they make 20.7% (Women on boards Davies Review Annual Report 2014, no date) also the Figure 2 below shows the women in executive and non executive jobs many would the pace of change is still far too slow given the large number of qualified women today (Cecil, 2013) . the sticky floor is used to describe a discriminatory employment that keeps certain amount of people at the bottom. this blocks the advancement of women or people working to move forward where Alison says the problem results from sticky floor dynamic with women finding difficulty being promoted at lower and middle levels of company and this is faced by many women (Tacet, 2013 ) and Rebecca Schambaugh CEO of Schambaugh argues that its not a glass ceiling, its sticky floor: free yourself from the hidden behaviours sabotaging your career success (Seligson, 2008). however we have seen several factors for low representative of women reaching the top.
some key issues can be they have family obligations and cultures plays a very important as gender stereotype continues to play a big role in shaping the society and the workplace as Anne Marie Slaughter formal director of policy planning says men are seen as breadwinners and women as the caregivers for children, which in turn often pulls them away from the labour force and thus leading corporate positions (Tacet, 2013) but we have seen some reasons why they aren’t reaching to the top most say its because of pregnancy and how their maternal instinct is holding them back but CEO Helena Morrissey argues back by saying that childbearing has a marginal but not significant impact on women’s career progression (Kutchinsky, 2014)
we have seen many issues that women face in companies but if we look at it in another aspect some answers could be simply be that women just don’t want to reach to the top is there a deeper meaning to what it actually means. some say that the job market is fair is it that women just don’t want senior positions for wide range of reasons we see that clever women are able women make it so those who don’t are they just aren’t trying hard enough if women can make it as top ceos in the FTSE 100 for example Alison copper head of imperial Tabacco, Liv Garfield head of Steven Trent and Carolyn McCall head of easy yet (Cohen, 2014) why cant others make it as well.
Notion of gender disparity In convenience with men overestimating and women underestimating their own abilities as Sandberg says women systematically underestimate their own abilities they do no negotiate for themselves in workforce (Tacet, 2013) or could it be are women their own worst enemy as Reading said that with the current rate change it would take more then 70 years to reach gender balanced Boardrooms in UK which puts the UK in the same boat as the rest of the Europe progression is being made but it is far too slow, the truth is that we have waited and waited and unless we do take special measures to look at the systemic reasons why women are not making it at the top, we are never going to succeed (Holt, 2012) Men and women share similar aspiration for promotion but women are less interested in advancing then men. while their leadership differ they share concerns about family and balancing work but however women with our without kids are likely to have more stress in short women cant not take that much stress, burnout and job statues and get their emotions on their way and are much loyal then men and can cope better with male counterparts(Daskal, 2015) as women and men have different networks which is important to succeed with more men in mends network men are most likely to hold leadership positions and women less access to senior positions .
4.2 B sub question: Leaky pipes why are women still paid less then men when they all have same qualification?
this has raised a major concern that women are paid less the men that each pound paid to a men every hour, women receive 86.p as shadows women minister said Weather you are a chief executive or a hairdresser women across the capital are being paid less than men for doing the same or equivalent job (Cecil, 2014) even Miller said corporate change was needed to address gender imbalance as well as the pay gap between men and women and rules on executive pay (Goldsmith, no date)
much of women’s work has tended to be undervalued and unrecognised (Pearson, 2013) . while the United Kingdom are making more efforts to account for women’s work as lord Davies set a out plans to increase the proportion of women on FTSE 100 company boards (Morris, 2013). we see that women are paid less then men that gives them a major disadvantage
5 PRATICAL RATONALE
women of all kinds whether its young all old from all around the world would be interested in this topic as they would be inspired in reading this and change their willingness to avoid sticky floor in companies. but not only the women, business managers and businesses wold also be interested in this article because we see women in management improves the company from researches we see that women are very important in the company as Ms Coffey said: “There is strong evidence that having more women in senior management improves a company’s financial returns, corporate governance and decision-making. As women are the key consumers in society, businesses without executive women are losing their connection with their market. UK companies simply cannot afford not to make the most of their female talent.” (Morris, 2013) and also this issue is getting recognised as Sacha Sadab director of corporate Governance- legal and general investment management said The minset is changing and boards are recognising that this is a board effectiveness issue rather than a women’s issue and one that they need to embrace in order to set their company up for the future and for long-term success. Human capital resources remain scarce and the more progressive companies are realising that the resource for the future lies within the huge talent pool of women (women on boards Davies review annual report, no date) we have seen women good in taking leadership and holding responsibility. Also policy maker will play a big
Company mangers may want to search more in this topic in terms of benefits in the company but also the lack of respect shown to women knowing that they are a great asset to the company as for example Sheryl Sandberg explained the tech industry has one particular challenge which is women going into STEM fields. if we women at the same percentage as men in fields, you would potentially close the gap in the computer scientists needed right now in our country (Tacet, 2013) and also managers should take in note as Heather Jackson said a raft of research published over the last decade has shown that gender diversity and the right balance of talent can be a continuing factor to business performance, so there is a strong business case to ensure that we nurture female talents from their very start of their careers (Burns, 2013). We see the quota question still looms large where several countries France, Spain, Itlay and Germany have gone with government setting targets for female representative but some argue that they are unhelpful and view women are unable to rise on their own but without them things are moving slowly and atleast they are getting more women leaders into leadership (Kutchinsky, 2014). knowing more about how important quota this could help business leaders and also government in addressing the issues and also find ways in encouraging women to rise. with that policy makers would play in a major role female employees from all positions and what extent would quota would be able to help them in their careers but not only women will be concerned from this but also men would be affected in their careers if women are being promoted in businesses what would happen to men would they be promoted the same as women will their job be affected as they even have worked hard enough to get to where they are now. as the European commission is considering new laws to get more women on top management jobs and has held a public consultation, part of which includes mandatory quotas (Post, 2012)
we have seen its very important for women to be in companies
overall female leadership and their willingness in companies is a very important thing that needs exploring this topic further and importance to a range of women who can get inspired by this and will be willing to step up and start taking control but not only them, companies, governments and industries would find it important. Exploring the importance of women in terms of decision taking, financial and benefits in the industry. this also will give companies worth exploring of increasing female leaders and encouraging them from getting out of sticky floor in companies or they can stick to the way it is now were companies are better off the way they are now.
6 EXPLORING THE TOPIC FURTHER
there is a vast range of literature that will help understand the topic further into dept. and sub questions that are related to it. Virginia Scheln (2007, pp. 6-18) looks critically barriers to women’s progress in management continues to be the gender stereotype where she closely looks at the think manager where she says think male attitude held by males over time and national borders which will help on giving an overview of my while topic on what barriers are stopping women from progressing. which leads to Verena and Rajeev Tandrayen (2015, pp. 452-466) where they look critically on the gender wage differential at different points of wage distribution and different ways the wage system works for men and women and comparing it with each other this will help on answering my 2nd sub question in dept. but also they look into sticky floor and glass ceiling which leads to then Faye Crosby and Joan Williams (2004, pp. 675-682) although the position of women have improved in last decades this journal mostly focuses on issue of mother and others in industries but even focuses on gender imbalance in terms of women choices but also argues the issues and blames gender imbalance but analysing stereotype thinking and behaviour and how has it changed in todays world which will help me explore more on my 1st sub question however Paul Smith, Peter Caputi and Nadia Crittenden (2012, pp. 436-448) where they give a different perspective where they review many diverse metaphors and labels that give insights into glass celling and classify whether or not women causes gender inequality in leadership and if the obstacles are hindering women reaching the top levels or organisation this will give me a unique perspective on maybe women don’t ant to reach the top because of various different reasons and Christine Doyle and Patricia Hind (2002, p. 67-82) mentions why women don’t reach high levels because of their stress in their jobs and they might cope better with male counterparts and the greater the job it will strain women then men and also with that we will look at Stephen Brammer and Andrew Millington (2009, pp.17-29) where they look at the reputation of women as a female representative in a company and what harms will it cause the person and the firm over roll but then will look at Stephen Brown (1979, pp.595-611) where he compares men and women leaders by looking at their trait, style and also looking at different leadership styles to analyse both characteristics this will help in concluding my whole project by looking both male and female leadership.
women on boards Davies review annual report, no date)
comparison between both of men and women on the left said shows women have 25.5% non executive held by women but only 6.9% are women executives.
(Vinnicombe, Doldor, and Turner, 2015)
2014 report on women in top management roles and how many are there in overall
(Vinnicombe, Doldor, and Turner, 2015)
Female FTSE shows how much % of women are in companies how many are they boards and who they are.
(Vinnicombe, Doldor, and Turner, 2015)
this table compares with the first one and breaks it down and we see from the FTSE 100 only 18 companies have female executives in companies.
(Vinnicombe, Doldor, and Turner, 2015)
top ten companies that have many female boards in the company
(Vinnicombe, Doldor, and Turner, 2015)
compares female and male executive jobs where women have 60.2% different then men.
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