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Annotated Bibliography-original

Taylor, R. J. (2002). FAMILY UNIFICATION WITH REACTIVE ATTACHMENT DISORDER CHILDREN: A BRIEF TREATMENT. Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal, 24(3), 475-481. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Purpose: is to find out if EMDR therapeutic strategy is an effective technique for the treatment of attachment disorder and its associated family issues.
Hypotheses/Questions: (1) EMDR’s use of left-right eye movements and sound, trigger physiological mechanism that activates the information processing system. (2) EMDR therapy able to desensitize negative cognitions and install positive processes or thoughts (3) Subsequent family therapy can successfully reunite an adopted child with his/her adopted parents
Participants: There was one participant, an eight-year-old adopted child. Her adopted parents had taken her trough a series of other treatment with no positive change either on physical behavior or psychologically.
Procedure: The young girl was to be taken through an EMDR therapy to treat the symptoms seen in her relationship with family members. However, the EDMR technique was modified to focus more on installing positive thoughts. This was meant to install the feeling of happiness and security.
Subject variable: EMDR therapeutic strategy
Dependent Variable: Change in behavior
Results: In the course of the therapy, the girl was able to identify elements of happiness and security in life. The child’s attitude and behavior changed after the end of those sessions. There also reports from school and church that her conduct had changed positively.
Limitations: the study is limited in the number of participants. The study was only done on one person. Therefore, the results obtained cannot be generalized, as there were no different results for comparison.
Conclusion: this study shows that EDMR therapeutic strategy is an effective treatment for RAD. Traditional psychotherapy needs to be done before and after EDMR as it helps to diagnose RAD and monitor its change. Supportive follow up therapy should be done to the family members of the patient, so that they can help the patient to overcome the disorder successfully. This study provides important information for further research on treatment RAD.
Wimmer, J., Vonk M.M., & Bordnick, P. (2009). A Preliminary Investigation of the Effectiveness of Attachment Therapy for Adopted Children with Reactive Attachment Disorder. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 26(4), 351-360.
Purpose: to examine the effectiveness of attachment therapy for adopted children diagnosed with Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD).
Hypotheses: The following two hypotheses were proposed (1) Reactive Attachment Disorder as measured on the RADQ will show a statistically significant decrease from pretest to posttest., (2) Impaired functioning as measured on the CAFAS or PCAFAS will show a
Statistically significant decrease from pretest to posttest.
Design: The research was conducted using The Randolph Attachment Disorder Questionnaire (RADQ) and Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment
Participants: A sample of 24 children who had been diagnosed with Reactive Attachment Disorder based on the DSM-IV-TR criteria by a licensed mental health practitioner prior to referral to the program. Although the initial number was 47, 12 were left out because consent to carry the research on them had no been received. The therapy teams hence did not test eleven of them consistently; they lacked the complete pretest and/or posttest score.
Procedure: The children’s mothers were asked to fill The Randolph Attachment Disorder Questionnaire (RADQ), which was to provide pretest and posttest data. Pretest questionnaires wee completed done within the assessment interview session. This was routinely done at the therapist’s office before beginning the therapy. The posttest questionnaires were completed either when the family decided to discontinue the therapy or when funding meant for the Attachment Network of Georgia was ended.
Subject Variable: attachment therapy
Predictor Variable: Reactive Attachment Disorder as measured on the RADQ and Impaired functioning as measured on the CAFAS
Results: There was a significant decrease in the mean scores of both measures from pre to post treatment-showing improvement.
Limitations: some of the limitations of the study include incomplete posttest data, because some of it was collected when funding program ended instead of voluntary discontinuation of the therapy. The one-group pretest-posttest design had a weak internal validity, as it could not control threats to internal validity such as history, regression toward the mean and maturation as well as testing.
Conclusion: This study provides tentative support for the effective treatment of children diagnosed with RAD. The program will only be effective if used by therapists who have been equipped with specific skills as well as knowledge on attachment therapy. The positive results given by the pilot study show the need for further research in order to find out the long-term results of attachment therapy. This study is important in that it provides information for further research on effective of RAD in adolescents.
Kemph, J.P., & Voeller, K.S. (2007). Reactive attachment disorder in adolescence. Adolescent Psychiatry, 30,159-178. Retrieved from EBSCOhost
Purpose: To examine the effective treatment of reactive attachment disorder in adolescents.
Hypotheses: It is possible to diagnose and treat reactive attachment disorder in adolescents
Participants: The participants were two adolescents each with reactive attachment disorder that was not diagnosed in childhood.
Procedure: The study examined two adolescents as well as previous related studies. One of the adolescent was a 14 year old who was adopted at the age of seven by a friendly and supportive couple, who had taken her to a psychiatrist to find help concerning her unbecoming behavior. She was diagnosed wit RAD, ADHD and ODD. She was in turn given a therapy aimed at improving her impulse control and self-esteem the second one was a 15 year old who had not received parental care since her childhood. She was later referred to a psychotherapist due her refusal to cooperate at school and truancy. She was diagnosed wit RAD and ODD, however, diagnosis of the former was made retrospectively.
Subject variable: Therapeutic program
Dependent variable (s): positive change in behavior and continued negative behavior
Results: Both adolescents had been taken through pathogenic care during infancy. Parental intervention and the therapeutic program were not successful in changing the first ones sexual acts. In addition, her opposition persisted and eventually refused to see the therapist as well as the psychiatrist. The second one exhibited improvement, as her testing results were good apart from occasional emotional changes.
Limitations: the study is not conclusive because it mostly focused on two participants who were in two different environments. Therefore, the conclusions made may not be valid because there might have been other factors that led the two adolescents to respond to medication the way they did, apart from the factors addressed.
Conclusion: A diagnosis of RAD in adolescent patients can be made retrospectively and this may help in treating the disorder. To treat RAD effectively in adolescents, the patient should be helped to have appropriate repetitive thoughts and behaviors over a long time to help them to develop positive relationships that are socially acceptable. Various factors can hinder an effective diagnosis of RAD, as a result, the disorder can be misdiagnosed and the patient will be put under the wrong therapeutic program.

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