Topic in my own words
The article by Katherine L. Wisner, Barbara L. Parry and Catherine M. Piontek is a literature analysis seeking to elaborate more on the definition, prevalence, causes, presentation, diagnosis and treatment of postpartum depression.
Methods used to study hypothesis or question in your own words:
Subjects, describe their demographics of any diagnosis or condition, age, gender, etc. Treatment, tests or measurements that were used to change and measure the behavior.
To address postpartum depression, Wisner, Parry and Piontek (2002) present a case study of a woman who is attending 6th week postpartum clinic. The woman presents with symptoms such as lack of sleep even when the baby falls asleep, constant worry, lack of appetite, and difficulties in decision making. The main question is how to diagnose this woman and the treatment thereof. The authors confirm symptoms of PPD as lost appetite, and sleep disturbance among other symptoms and these should occur with 4 weeks postpartum with some cases occurring 3 months after childbirth. This is according to the DSM-IV classification. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale is cited as an appropriate screening measure. Moreover, screening questions are also viewed as an important diagnostic tool.
Data and scores from Charts or Graphs, or what they found out in your own words.
Wisner, Parry and Piontek (2002) cite that the PPD patients should be evaluated based on severity of presenting symptoms. These should guide on need for referral to a specialist as well as the appropriate treatment. Furthermore, this should aid in differential diagnosis which includes baby blues and postpartum psychosis. In treating PPD, the authors recommend the use of antidepressants such as selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors. Most antidepressants are found to have no risks on the infant thus breastfeeding should continue unless the mother considers otherwise with the advice of a health profession. Some prophylactic treatments can be used in women who already have a history of PPD. Other proposed treatments include psychotherapy and hormonal (estradiol) treatment.
Conclusions and author'(s) future directions
Postpartum depression has been identified as a common occurrence among new mothers. As such, proper diagnostic and screening measures should be applied to allow prompt treatment of the condition. Due to uncertainty in the safety of antidepressants on infants and efficacy of hormonal therapy, the authors highlight the need to conduct more research on this area. Moreover, the authors call for enactment of specific treatment guidelines in PPD cases. Finally, the authors see the need to evaluate long-term effects of antidepressants that pass to the infant’s body through breastfeeding.
Wisner, K. L., Parry, B. L. and Piontek, C. M. (2002). Postpartum depression. New England Journal of Medicine, 347: 194-199.
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