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Biology immunology

Biology immunology
Answer all the questions correctly and clearly
1.    Cytokines are proteins made by cells that affect the behavior of other cells and/or themselves. A specific subset of cytokines that are involved in crosstalk between leukocytes are termed:
2.    The action of cytokines can be classified into 3 main categories.
When cytokines act on the same cell that produces the cytokine the action is termed:
When cytokines act on a nearby cell the action is termed:
When cytokines act enter the circulation and act on a distant cell the action is termed:
3.    Treatment of B cells with IL-4 can induce 10ng/ml of IgE production by B cells. Treatment of B cells with IL-5 can induce 20ng/ml of IgE production by B cells. Treatment of B cells with IL-4 and IL-5 together can induce 100ng/ml of IgE production by B cells. The function of IL-4 and IL-5 together to induce IgE production by B cells can best be described as:
4.    Activated macrophages secrete a range of cytokines. List 3 cytokines typically made by these cells:
5.    Charles A. Dinarello is reknowned for discovering which cytokine?
6.    T cell growth factor (TCGF), subsequently renamed IL-2 was discovered by:
7.    A workup of blood from a patient show that T cells can’t be activated very well. It is discovered that the patient’s T cells can make IL-2 but that the IL-2 can only bind to IL-2 receptor with very low affinity. What IL-2 receptor signaling chains are missing/defective in this patient?
8.    IL-2 is critically involved in T cell activation. Surprisingly, IL-2 deficient mice show T cell hyperactivation and autoimmunity. What specific type of cell is defective in IL-2 deficient mice and responsible for the autoimmunity that develops?
9.    Endotoxic shock is mediated primarily by a cytokine that leads to cachexia (wasting). Name this cytokine:
10.    Who discovered TNF?
11.    The Th1/Th2 paradigm was proposed by Tim Mossman and Robert Coffman in the late 1980s. Name the Th1 cytokine and Th2 cytokine that they first worked on:
12.    This Th1 cytokine and Th2 cytokine inhibit the action of one another in a process that can best be described as:
13.    Name the type of epithelial cells in the intestine that secrete antibacterial defensins:
14.    What is the most abundant immunoglobulin isotype produced at mucosal surfaces?
15.    Many antigens/bacteria in the intestine can enter the body through specialized epithelial cells overlying the Peyer’s patches. What is the name of these specialized cells?
16.    A unique population of T cells exist between epithelial cells in the intestine. What are these cells called and what is 1 marker that they express?
17.    If you want to make a vaccine that induces lymphocytes to migrate effectively to the intestine, what specific integrin molecule would you want to induce on the surface of the lymphocytes?
18.    What specific region of the human intestine do most bacteria reside in?
19.    Peripheral tolerance is an important was to prevent autoimmunity. Name 1 mechanism that helps to maintain peripheral tolerance.
20.    Chronic inflammation induced by immune reactivity to a self-antigen can lead to tissue destruction and subsequent immune reactivity to addition sel-antigens. This process is called:
21.    In Celiac disease, an injested protein is deaminated by tissue transglutaminase (TTG) and presented by HLA-DQ to induce effector Th1 cells that lead to inflammation and villous atrophy. What is the ingested protein that leads to Celiac disease?
22.    There are 4 major types of hypersensitivity. Which type is mediated primarily by cellular (not humoral) immune responses?
23.    Allergy is a type of hypersensitivity. What isotype of immunoglobulin is most involved in allergy and what cell type does this isotype of immunoglobulin work on to induce degranulation?
24.    Type I hypersensitivity leads to a very quick early response (within minutes). Name a major molecule involved in this early response and name one of the biological effects of this molecule.
25.    On planet Mars you find aliens that have blood group antigens very different than humans. Instead of ABO blood group antigens, they have WTF blood group antigens. In these aliens immune responses are never induced against “F” antigens. An alien with WF blood can receive blood from aliens with what other 3 types of alien blood?
26.    Name 2 types of primary humoral immunodeficiency disorders:
27.    DiGeorge Syndrome is a type of cellular (T-cell) immunodeficiency. What is the major organ affected in DiGeorge Syndrome?
28.    In addition to being hairless, nude mice are also immunodeficient.  Bill and Ted, 2 well-meaning graduate students, each plan a way to attempt to treat this immunodeficiency. Bill chooses to transfer nude mice millions of B cells. Ted chooses to give the nude mice a bone marrow transplant. Their professor tells them that both of the plans will fail. Why?
29.    A patient is shown to have an X linked disorder with poor T cell function that is driven primarily by defects in the cytoskeleton such that good T cell/DC interactions do not take place. What is the name of this syndrome?
30.    Cancer cells can express 2 main cell surface proteins that induce NK cells to lyse them. Name these 2 cell surface proteins and name the protein that they interact with on NK cells.
31.    There are several ways in which tumors can escape immune recognition. List 3 such mechanisms:
32.    Describe the immunological process that leads to hemolytic disease of the newborn (7 points).
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