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Case-Control Study

Case Ascertainment
This is a multi- site study because the steps of accessing the journal requires opening students account at Walden University. The next step involves opening ebscohost online library to access the journal.
Number of Cases
The total number of participants was 43,209 patients, and this formed the population of the study. The sample size was 3,996 individuals, who were selected depending on the selection criteria. Therefore, the number of cases which did not participate was 39213 patients. The cases which did not participate were excluded on the criteria of having a certain age. In addition, patients who were not admitted in the chosen surgical department or experienced atherosclerotic disease were excluded. Patients who experienced myocardial infarction before the selection date were also excluded. Patients who did not have health insurance cards were also excluded (Lamontagne, Garant, Carvalho, Lanthier, Smieja, & Pilon, 2008).
Control Population
The number of the control population was 19,480 patients and only 3,996 patients were included for the analysis. The control cases included the patients who experienced any risk factors of cardiovascular infection. The controls had no diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease. In addition, the control had not experienced myocardial infarction when the study was conducted (Lamontagne, Garant, Carvalho, Lanthier, Smieja, & Pilon, 2008).
Type (s) /Method (s) of Data Collection
The data were collected from medical records of Centre informatisé Derec harsh évaluative en services et soins de santé of the Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke and Logivac. There was no procedure applied to validate the data used because the databases used where reliable (Lamontagne, Garant, Carvalho, Lanthier, Smieja, & Pilon, 2008).
Type of Data Analysis:
The data were analyzed using correlation and regression models. The correlation coefficient was obtained as well as Type 1 and type II errors. The Odds ratio (OR) was also obtained. A logistic regression model was developed. The Adjusted OR was computed, as well as the confidence interval. Invariable and multivariable analysis were developed to include the covariables provided during the analysis. A multivariable model was developed using the available covariates. In addition, a single step model was applied (Lamontagne, Garant, Carvalho, Lanthier, Smieja, & Pilon, 2008).
Results/Main Findings of Study:
It was established that the likelihood of vaccination was more for the controls than that of the cases. Chronic renal failure had a higher probability of occurrence in cases than in the controls. A similar pattern was experienced for diabetes. The application of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine had a mean time of 1.81 years and a standard deviation of 1.02. The cases had a mean interval, between exposure and vaccine, of 1.50 years. The standard deviation was 1.03 years (Lamontagne, Garant, Carvalho, Lanthier, Smieja, & Pilon, 2008).
Assessment of Bias:
The selection of the sample was not biased because a clear guide was provided during the sampling process. All the sampled cases and controls had all the qualifications required. The cases and controls which were excluded failed to meet the minimum characteristics provided (Merrill & Timmreck, 2006).
Assessment of Confounders:
The confounders were provided to ensure that the research is effective. The dependent and independent variables were provided alongside other supportive variables. The confounds improved the results of the research, and this made the entire process reliable (Merrill & Timmreck, 2006).
The article provided all the information required for analysis. The research is a case study, which involves controlling and cases. Therefore, it is possible to identify the behavior of cases because the controls provide the characteristics of the cases. The sample selected helps develop inferences about the population of study. This shows that the research is reliable because the results were obtained from a reliable process.

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