Why China’s One-child Policy is Unjustifiable
One-child Policy remains controversial in China because of the associated adversities and lack of proper grounds for justification. One Child policy is, however, however in force since the year 1977. The objective of this research paper is to investigate the implications of One-child Policy and establish safe methods of helping mothers who get a second child. The government of China had encouraged families to have many children until 1960s before the introduction of One-child Policy. The leader of the Republic of China, Chairman Mao, believed that high population was the source of the country’s empowerment. China’s population grew by approximately four hundred million between 1949 and 1976. This led to severe demographic situation in China during the 1970s. The government of China began to encourage citizens to marry at later ages and get a maximum of two children. The fertility rate began to decrease, but future population growth was expected to be overwhelming (Li 20). The Chinese leaders planned the One-child Policy in 1977 and mandated it publicly in the year 1979 (Kara & McNeal 29).
The research question for this research paper is: Why does One-Child policy remains controversial in China? The Chinese One-child policy is associated with social, political and economic issues. One-child Policy is a strategy of population control that limits urban dwellers to having only one child. Rural couples and ethnic communities, however, are allowed to raise an additional child. Among the problems that face China’s population and family planning policy include imbalances in fertility rate among urban and rural populations, challenges in diversifying risks under one-child family, rising cases of gender imbalances, and the contradiction between the one-child policy and the motive for administrative measures.
The One-child policy is one of the causes of rising social issues in China. These social evils include unsafe arbotions, imbalances in sex ratio, violation of human rights and effects on social structures.
Arbtion is evidenced by rising issues of infanticide practiced by rural families and increased sex-selective abortions among the urban settlers. The citizens strive to prevent extra births as it is contrary to the requirement of the state. Most citizens resort to gender-selective abortion to pursue the desired gender, a crime motivated by One-child Policy (Li, Yi & Zhang 1536). The government forces abortions for above-quota pregnancies. The reluctance of the Chinese government to adjust the law so that women can be allowed to raise more than one child is the main cause of these actions. For example, the sex ratio for the cohort 0-4 years reached the highest at 125.42 in rural areas, 121.83 for town populations and 115.88 for the urban populations (Wang & Su 243). These figures exceeded the international sex ratio warning line of 107. This campaign was motivated by the fact that Chairman Mao, who was the leader of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), by then, believed that the country was empowered by population growth. Consequently, the population of China by 1976 reached 940 million, which was an increase from 540 million in 1949. Starting from 1970, the government encouraged its people to get only two children and to marry later in life. The government can amend the One-child Policy and seek desirable mechanisms to address the challenges associated with the high population rate.
Imbalances in Sex Ratio
One-child Policy leads to the imbalances in sex ratio, which are considered social risks. Mothers face strict restrictions and higher fines, thus opt to have a son once they are facing possible penalties. This indicates that each family requires at least one son to continue the family lineage in continuing reproductive, religious, social and economic functions for the family (Wang & Su 243). This phenomenon is referred to as son preference and is an indicator of widespread gender inequality. Gender imbalance in rural and urban populations will risk the socio-economic development of China (Wang & Su 243). Social instability that is associated with gender imbalances may lead to the destruction of social security and population safety. The National Population and Family Planning aim at reversing the imbalance in sex ratio, but it is not possible under the current administrative measures (Wang & Su 249). The Chinese policy makers are making attempts to correct the sex ratio imbalances through initiatives that provide financial compensation to mothers with daughters (Ebenstein 783). Care for the girls campaign is one of the initiatives that the Chinese government has launched to subsidize parents with daugters. The success of this campaign promises the ability of the parents to care for both sexes and reduce the rapidly alarming sex ratio imbalances.
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