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INGS1001 Power and Money in Global Society
Essays
For this unit you are required to write a research essay of no more than 1,700 words on one of the following topics.
For information on the presentation of essays, extensions and late penalties, please consult the unit of study guide and the distributed Guidelines on Written Assignments.
. 1. How would you defend, or critique, Kenneth Waltz’s “bet” on states as the perennial actors within the international political economy?
2. ‘The road to the free market was opened by an enormous increase in continuous, centrally organised and controlled interventionism’ (Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation). Discuss.
3. To what extent would you accord with Neil Smith that uneven development is the hallmark of the geography of capitalism?
4. With reference to key examples, to what extent are counter-spaces of resistance significant within the contestation of the global political economy?
5. Critically evaluate Barry Gills’ view that we are witnessing a multidimensional “triple” crisis on a global scale within the global political economy.
6. Craig Murphy, in International Affairs, 76.4 (2000) “Global Governance: poorly done and poorly understood” argued that ” The best arguments for paying attention to the world polity are ethical and moral…..global governance is likely to remain inefficient, incapable of shifting resources from the world’s wealthy to the world’s poor, pro market, and relatively insensitive to the concerns of labour and the rural poor…” Critically analyse this statement with reference to some of the issue areas covered in the course.
7. The world has globalised financial markets and globalised financial institutions, but no global system of regulation. Does this explain why a crisis that started in the United States in 2007 spread so rapidly to the rest of the world? Explain what drove that spread and whether and how global governance might (or might not) have made a difference.
.8. Discuss the extent to which the issue of climate change is linked to the broader issue of sustainability. What are some of the implications of a continued “Business as Usual” approach and what are some alternatives and targets?
9. Sovereignty has been one of the fundamental concepts in International Relations since the Treaty of Westphalia and it is enshrined in the UN Charter in Article 2.1. Yet in an increasingly globalised world the sovereignty of states is being undermined and challenged in a variety of ways. Critically analyse the extent to which state sovereignty is being undermined using some of the issue areas covered in the course.
The essay will be graded according to:
a) Your ability to summarise key themes
b) Your ability to critically engage the literature – that is, move beyond summary and into evaluation
c) Your ability to identify a range of bibliographical sources
d) Your adherence to the conventions of prose, presentation, referencing, etc.
Of these, items b is the most demanding, and hence the key to receiving high grades
There should be a reference list and the in-text references.
INGS1001   Power and Money in Global Society
Essays
For this unit you are required to write a research essay of no more than 1,700 words on one of the following topics.
The essay is due on Monday, May 4th at 5.00pm. It should be submitted in the designated box in the 2nd floor lobby of the Merewether Building.  A signed INGS cover sheet must be attached.
For information on the presentation of essays, extensions and late penalties, please consult the unit of study guide and the distributed Guidelines on Written Assignments.
. 1. How would you defend, or critique, Kenneth Waltz’s “bet” on states as the perennial actors within the international political economy?
2. ‘The road to the free market was opened by an enormous increase in continuous, centrally organised and controlled interventionism’ (Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation). Discuss.
3. To what extent would you accord with Neil Smith that uneven development is the hallmark of the geography of capitalism?
4. With reference to key examples, to what extent are counter-spaces of resistance significant within the contestation of the global political economy?
5. Critically evaluate Barry Gills’ view that we are witnessing a multidimensional “triple” crisis on a global scale within the global political economy.
6. Craig Murphy, in International Affairs, 76.4 (2000)  “Global Governance: poorly done and poorly understood” argued that ” The best arguments for paying attention to the world polity are ethical and moral…..global governance is likely to remain inefficient, incapable of shifting resources from the world’s wealthy to the world’s poor, pro market, and relatively insensitive to the concerns of labour and the rural poor…” Critically analyse this statement with reference to some of the issue areas covered in the course.
7. The world has globalised financial markets and globalised financial institutions, but no global system of regulation. Does this explain why a crisis that started in the United States in 2007 spread so rapidly to the rest of the world? Explain what drove that spread and whether and how global governance might (or might not) have made a difference.
.8. Discuss the extent to which the issue of climate change is linked to the broader issue of sustainability. What are some of the implications of a continued “Business as Usual” approach and what are some alternatives and targets?
9. Sovereignty has been one of the fundamental concepts in International Relations since the Treaty of Westphalia and it is enshrined in the UN Charter in Article 2.1. Yet in an increasingly globalised world the sovereignty of states is being undermined and challenged in a variety of ways. Critically analyse the extent to which state sovereignty is being undermined using some of the issue areas covered in the course.
The essay will be graded according to:
a) Your ability to summarise key themes
b) Your ability to critically engage the literature – that is, move beyond summary and into evaluation
c) Your ability to identify a range of bibliographical sources
d) Your adherence to the conventions of prose, presentation, referencing, etc.
Of these, items b is the most demanding, and hence the key to receiving high grades
Week 4
Week beginning March 23rd
Globalization, the State and Rising Powers
Video:  When China Met Africa
There is much debate about the uneven development of the process called ‘globalization’. It has many strong advocates and many detractors, and many also who say the idea is exaggerated.
This week, we will view the video When China Met Africa about the workers in the frontline of China’s expansion into Africa to explore the political economy of a rising global power. The point of debate, to consider in class, is whether this is an economic process to be encouraged or resisted.
References:
? Alfredo Saad-Filho, ‘The “Rise of the South”: Global Convergence at Last?’, New Political Economy, 19:4 (2014): 578-600.
? Davidson, Neil (2006) ‘China: Unevenness, Combination, Revolution?’ in Hugo Radice and Bill Dunn (eds) 100 Years of Permanent Revolution: Results and Prospects (Pluto Press).
Other Videos:
Niall Ferguson Globalization Then and Now http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FHpoYDCJVgc
Davos Annual Meeting on globalization: Manifesto for Globalization http://au.youtube.com/watch?v=mcL4WI7UTxs
Noam Chomsky: Discussion on Globalization http://au.youtube.com/watch?v=AHJPSLgHemM
Tutorial Week 4
Debating When China Met Africa
Is the process seen in the video a progressive or positive experience for the workers? Is the pressure to intensify their work something to be resisted or an unavoidable logic of the uneven development and expansion of capitalism?
Tutorial references:
Hardy, Jane and Adrian Budd (2012) China’s capitalism and the crisis’, International Socialism: A quarterly journal of socialist theory, No.133; http://www.isj.org.uk/?id=777; accessed 18/12/2012.
Adam David Morton, ‘Piketty Digest #13: Global Inequality of Wealth in the Twenty-First Century’, For the Desk Drawer, http://adamdavidmorton.com/2014/10/piketty-digest-13-global-inequality-of-wealth-in-the-twenty-first-century/
Week 5
Week beginning March 30th
International Organisations and Global Governance: Introducing International Organisations
This week we start a bracket of lectures in the second half of the semester which focus on International Relations perspectives and in particular the significance of International Organisations in contemporary global politics.   This week’s lectures will introduce students to the theory and practice of International Organisations (IOs), and the extent to which they are establishing the architecture of global governance in the absence of a ‘global government’.
In the weeks to follow students will be encouraged to analyse the range of institutions created in response to various economic, security and environmental challenges faced by states and other actors in the global system.  A wide spectrum of case studies will be discussed in the coming weeks, from issues related to the environment, security, international trade, development, sustainability and human rights.
? Scott, Shirley V, 2008.  ‘International Law in World Politics’, Lynne Rienner , Boulder & London chp 1 pp 1`-18 Chp 3, pp31-63
? Craig N. Murphy, ‘Global Governance: Poorly Done and Poorly Understood’, International Affairs 2000 (76: 4), 789-803.
? Zürn, Michael. ‘Global Governance and Legitimacy Problems’, Government and Opposition 2004 (39 April), 260-287
Tutorial Week 5
International Organisations and Global Governance
Tutorial presentation topic: What kinds of power and influence do International Organisations exercise?
General questions: What do you understand by the term global governance? Are international organisations instruments of or rivals to sovereign states? Are they are solutions to international collective problems, or agents of new transnational communities?
Week 6
Week beginning 13th April
Collective Security
As a final component in this course which introduces students to issues of power and money in global society we will examine the collective security architecture and organisation that was established along with the Bretton Wood institutions (discussed in Week 8) at the end of World War Two aimed at ensuring peaceful conditions for development and trade. The United Nations is arguably one of the key drivers of globalisation in terms of international relations as well as such things as constructivist notions of universal human rights. We will examine some of the problems it has faced in both the Cold War and in the post-Cold War period in terms of peacekeeping and humanitarian interventions, as well as introducing the key issues of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the asymmetrical threats of terrorism.
UN Charter, 1945 (On-Line)
http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/index.shtml
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948.  (On-Line)
http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml
? Claude, Inis Swords into Plowshares 1964 (London: University of London Press, 1964), 223-238.
? Evans, G. and Sahnoun, M. 2002, ‘The Responsibility to Protect’, Foreign Affairs, vol. 81, no.6, pp. 1-14
?Tripodi, Paolo,2013 Stopping Atrocities: Field Commander’s Moral Responsibility in Srebrenica and Rwanda, Marine Corps University Journal, Vol 4 No 1.
Recommended
Background on UN Peacekeeping:  http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/
History of Peacekeeping: http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/operations/history.shtml
Peacekeeping Reform: http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/operations/reform.shtml
Brahimi Report: http://www.un.org/peace/reports/peace_operations/
International Crisis Group [Online] Available:
http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm
United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations Home Page [Online] Available: http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/home.shtml
Tutorials Week 6
Collective Security and Interventions
Tutorial presentation topic: How has collective security evolved under the UN system since 1945?  How has peacekeeping evolved and why?
General questions: How has collective security evolved under the UN system since 1945? How effective are sanctions and what are some of the problems that arise when they are used? Was the UN irrelevant in the run-up to the 2003 Iraq war?
What are the key differences in the three generations of peacekeeping to date? What have been some of the issues in achieving mandates through the UNSC? What have been the successes and failures of post-WWII peacekeeping?
Tutorial References: see lecture materials and readings
Week 7
Week beginning April 20th
Governing Global Finance
This lecture will address the emergence of rapid capital mobility and its impacts on regulation and governance from a political perspective. Taking the position that all economic decisions are made by political actors and decision-makers the topic examines which actors now have power in determining global financial flows and what governance mechanisms have been established to ensure prosperity and market orderliness.
References:
? Helleiner, Eric (2009) “Reregulation and Fragmentation in Internal Financial Governance Special Forum: Crisis and the Future of Global Financial Governance” Global Governance Vol.15, no,1: 16-21.
? Varma, Sabrina, ‘Improving Global Economic Governance’, South Centre Occasional Paper, August 2002, 1-25.
Governing Global Trade
This lecture examines how global trade flows have continued to fluctuate despite a crisis in global trade talks within the World Trade Organisation. The week examines whether the structure of the WTO – or other factors – is contributing to stalled talks of the Doha Development round of negotiations between trading nations.
References:
? Capling, Ann and Richard Higgott (2009) ‘Introduction: The Future of the Multilateral Trade System – What Role for the World Trade Organization’, Global Governance, Vol.15, no.3: 313-325.
Tutorial Week 7
Governing Global Trade and Finance
Tutorial presentation topic: Can International Organisations reverse the widening and sharpening of developmental disparities?
General questions: What are the key elements of the global trade and financial governance architecture?  To what extent do they reflect an ideological agenda on the part of the developed nations?
Tutorial References: also see lecture materials and readings: ? Moon, Bruce E.2008, Free Trade vs. Protectionism: Values and Controversies, pp.95-115 in Scnarr, Michael T & Scnarr, Neil D. Introduction to Global Issues 4th ed..Lynne Reinner, Boulder and London
Week 8
Week beginning April 27th
Sustainable Development
Long term sustainability is arguably the most crucial issue and challenge facing ours and future generations, and at its core are questions of global power and economic relations and structures. This week’s lectures will first examine what is un-sustainable development and why sustainability is a priority in future development and resource use.  In the second lecture we will critically examine the existing architecture and programs for sustainability as well as exploring what is meant by ‘genuine sustainability’ and its implications for future economic development and international relations.
Required Reading
? Sneddon, Chris. Howarth Richard B. and Norgaard, Richard B. Sustainable Development in a post Brundtland world; Ecological Economics, 57 (2006) 253-68.
? Conca, Ken, Princen, Thomas, Maniantes, Michael, Confronting Consumption, Global Environmental Politics, 2001 1(3) pp 1-8.
? Carruthers, David. From opposition to orthodoxy: The remaking of sustainable development, Journal of Third World Studies, Americus: Fall 2001. Vol. 18, Iss. 2.
Recommended Reading
Living Planet Report 2012 available online at
http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/all_publications/living_planet_report/
Tutorials Week 8
Sustainable Development
Tutorial presentation topic: What is ‘sustainable development’ and how achievable is it?
General questions: What are the problems of the ‘consumption paradigm’ as outlined by Conca et al and what are the implications for sustainable development? What do we need to meet the Millennium Development Goals?
Tutorial References: see lecture materials and readings
Week 9
Week beginning May 4th
Climate Change
A key element of achieving genuine long-term sustainability is addressing the anthropogenic impact on climate change. This week’s lectures will first examine the evidence underlying claims of an anthropogenic impact on climate change and its projected long term implications. In the second lecture we will critically examine the existing international negotiations and architecture established to date through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and assess the political and economic obstacles in achieving a long-term sustainable outcome.
? Stern Review, Sir Nicholas J. Stern 2006. Summary, in The Stern Review: The Economics of Climate Change (commissioned by UK Chancellor of the Exchequer Gordon Brown).
? Ikame, J. 2003, ‘Equity, Environmental Justice and Global Sustainability: Incomplete Approaches in Climate Change’, Global Environmental Change, vol.13, no.3, pp. 195-206.
? Connelly James, Smith Graham, Benson David and Saunders Clare, 3rd ed. 2012, ‘Politics and the Environment,: from Theory to Practice’, Routledge, Oxford and New York, pp 54-91
nk Group, Global Climate Change, Publications Page [Online] Available: http://lnweb18.worldbank.org/ESSD/envext.nsf/46ByDocName/Publications.
Tutorials Week 9:
The Implications of Climate Change
Tutorial presentation topic: What are the main challenges to achieving sustainable solutions to combating climate change?
General questions: What are the dangers of the BAU approach outlined in the Stern Review, and what will be the impact of a global ETS if implemented on GDP? How achievable is the target of 550ppm of CO2 emissions by 2050? What role (s) do you envisage for IOs in achieving this target? How important is international cooperation in combating climate change?
Tutorial References: see lecture materials and readings
Week 10
Week beginning May 11th
The Geopolitical Economy of the Global South
One of the most dimensions of the uneven development and expansion of capitalism has been the rethinking of North-South relations from conditions of colonialism and imperialism to today’s globalizing world. What are the conceptual and historical issues at stake in assessing the role of the Global South within the power relations of the global political economy? How has ‘modernization’ been understood in constructing the “three worlds” of development? How has the rise of neoliberalism and the expansion of Western power unfolded? What post-colonial questions arise for these global times?
This week, we look at some key debates the geopolitical economy of the Global South. In our first session, we look the rise of Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) and the project of development in the Global South. Stemming from the 1980s and the role of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank in Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa, the rise of market-led policies will be traced. What have been the main contours of change in development policy in the post-World War II period? What kinds of power have been embedded in SAPs?
The second session connects structural adjustment and popular protest through so-called “food riots”. On one hand global politics has witnessed the promotion of “food security” and the liberalisation of trade and agriculture seeking solutions through market conditions. On the other hand, there has been the rise of demands for “food sovereignty” that links security to the right of people to control their own resources of food production. How does the food crisis and the 2007-8 spike in food prices relate, for example, to the Arab Uprisings that have unfolded since 2010?
Tutorial week 10
Food sovereignty versus Food Security
Tutorial presentation topic: What are the power relations and differences between the debate on “food security” and “food sovereignty”?
General questions: Reflect on the claim that “IMF riots” symbolise the link between structural adjustment and state shrinkage. Question whose security is the object of food security. Consider the origins of the Arab Uprisings since 2010 with the issues of structural adjustment and food riots as background factors.
Week 11
Week beginning May 18th
Governance and Resistance
a) Democracy Promotion and Good Governance
b) Globalisation and Resistance: Case Study – the Zapatistas
By the 1980s ‘democracy’ began replacing concerns about ‘development’ within mainstream political economy literature. The ‘transition’ to democracy paradigm advocated the construction of vibrant civil societies in the ‘Third World’, or Global South. US foreign policy instruments have been continually used to promote ‘democracy’ throughout the Global South. However, there has also been a focus on a more critical approach to democracy promotion and the agenda of good governance.
This week, we begin to look at the debates on democracy promotion to probe in more detail questions of global power. In our first session, we look at the main tenets of the ‘transition’ paradigm to democracy promotion and how this contrasts with a more ‘critical’ perspective on the political economy of democratisation. We then turn to questions of resistance with a case study of one of the world’s most significant contemporary instances of resistance in the struggle of the Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (EZLN: Zapatista Army of National Liberation) in Chiapas, Mexico against neoliberalism.
Tutorial Week 11
Globalisation and Resistance: Case Study – the Zapatistas
Tutorial presentation topic: How can we being to understand subaltern class agency and resistance to neoliberalism?
General questions:
Focus on the EZLN in Mexico and its connection to subsequent anti-capitalist and alter-globalization movements within the global political economy. What are the tensions between so-called “horizontalist” social movements (changing the world through anti-power) and “verticalist” social movements (capturing state power) as vehicles of social transformation in global politics?
Week 12
Week beginning May 25th
Multiple Global Crises
a) Capitalist Crisis, Systemic Crisis, Civilizational Crisis
b) Crisis in Capitalism or Crisis of Capitalism?
2008 saw the largest financial meltdown in decades – some say since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Indeed the contemporary period is now known as the Great Recession. A process that appeared to start in the US housing market rapidly spread beyond the US, and to all facets of finance. This week we look at the how this financial crisis is at the intersection of crisis conditions in food, climate change, and the global economy. A consideration of ways out of the crisis includes: 1) Global reformism based on Global Keynesianism: reintroducing a redistributive component into the global accumulation process; 2) Global Fascism based on a New War Order: a descent into barbarism, driven by military spending, multiple forms of repression, and wars; 3) Global Anti-capitalism: a democratic socialist project; and 4) the collapse of global civilisation.
The second session explores how the crisis spread and the regulatory responses which sought to make markets stable. Does that crisis and the subsequent patchy recovery signal a challenge to the global economic dominance of the United States? Does it question the sustainability of the current financial order?

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