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CLASSROOM DISCOURSE AND PEDAGOGY

CLASSROOM DISCOURSE AND PEDAGOGY
Week 9
1    Assignment 2
2    Turn-taking 2: Rules of Turn-taking in Classrooms
3    Turn-taking: Implications for language learning
1    Assignment 2: Analytic Essay
Students will be given a selection of long transcriptions and recordings. You will have a choice of either a second language classroom, or of a restaurant conversation involving second and first language speakers. You will be given guidance in choosing a topic from the course (turn-taking, sequence, turn construction, repair), and you will then be asked to make a collection of the chosen phenomenon, sort the collected examples, and write an analytic essay of the phenomenon. The essay should begin with an introduction stating what data is being used, and the topic of the essay; there should be a short summary of the relevant literature; then short extracts should be introduced (similar in length in most cases to those in the class handouts or Assignment 1); the extracts should be in the body of the essay, and should be analysed in a similar way to the extracts in Assignment 1: identifying where the feature under examination occurs in the extract, describing it, and considering how this does (or does not) orient to learning. The extracts should be presented in a logical and coherent order, such as from simple to complex, or core to peripheral; there should be a short discussion of the significance of the findings for language teaching and learning; finally a conclusion should bring together the findings and implications.
Length: 2,500 words
Weighting: 60%
Due: Week 13:26 October 2012
Assessment Criteria
Choice of appropriate topic. (5%)
Summary of appropriate literature (25%)
Collection of good examples of the data, appropriately sorted and sequenced. (25%)
Good analysis and discussion of the data (40%)
Clear and concise expression. (2%)
Adherence to the conventions of academic writing. (2%)
Adherence to the set word limit (10% tolerance allowed). (1%)
Data for Assignment 2
Transcripts and sound files for this assignment can be found at Learning@Griffith, in the Assessment folder.
I have provided you with more data than you will need, so you should be selective about what you use. You might want to choose a class/conversation at random, or you might  want to choose between classroom and natural conversation, or you might want to choose by proficiency level, or perhaps make comparisons of some phenomenon across levels. However, whatever you choose, it is important that you don’t allow yourself to be overwhelmed by the quantity of data. Don’t listen to all the data!
The data you’ll find are as follows:
1 Sydney restaurant data
This is a recording of a restaurant conversation involving three  Anglo-Australians
(Colin, Annabel and Denise) and two non-English background speakers, Edina (German first language) and  Roberta (Brazilian Portuguese first language).
Edina and Roberta are ADVANCED LEVEL SPEAKERS
AUDIO ONLY AVAILABLE
2 Beginners’ TESOL class with Korean learners
A-TR3 – Class 3  Recorded in a community ESL class in Sydney, Australia-
12/03/01-ELEMENTARY LEVEL
Australian teacher (Harry) /3 students (1 male and 2 females)/ Conversation class
AUDIO AND VIDEO AVAILABLE
3 Intermediates’ TESOL classes with Korean learners
K-TR8 – Class 1 Oxford English private school in Korea.– 24/04/02,
American teacher (Ken) / 2 students (2 females)/ Conversation class –
INTERMEDIATE LEVEL
AUDIO ONLY AVAILABLE
K-TR10 – Class 1 Oxford English private school in Korea.– 01/05/02,
American teacher (Ken) / 2 students (2 females)/ Conversation class
INTERMEDIATE LEVEL
AUDIO ONLY AVAILABLE
K-TR12 – Class 2 H.F.L. Univ.– 13/05/02, 6:30 – 7:50 p.m.
Canadian teacher (Barry) / 8 students (7 males & 1 female)/ Conversation class,
INTERMEDIATE LEVEL
AUDIO ONLY AVAILABLE
K-TR14 – Class 2 H.F.L. Univ.– 20/05/02, 6:30 – 7:50 p.m.
Canadian teacher (Berry) / 8 students (7 males & 1 female)/ Conversation class
INTERMEDIATE LEVEL
AUDIO ONLY AVAILABLE
2    Turn-taking in Conversation and in the Language Classroom
A set of rules for turn-taking:
The Sacks et al model of turn-taking: turn allocation rules (or TACs: turn allocation components)
TRP = Transition relevance place, C = current speaker, and N = next speaker.
Rule 1 – applies initially at the first TRP of any turn
(a)     If C selects N in current turn, then C must stop speaking, and N must speak next, transition occurring at the first TRP after N-selection
(b)    If C does not select N, then any (other) party may self-select, first speaker gaining rights to the next turn
(c)    If C has not selected N, and no other party self-selects under option (b), then C may (but need not) continue (i.e. claim rights to a further turn-constructional unit).
Rule 2 – applies to all subsequent TRPs
When rule 1(c) has been applied by C, then at the next TRP Rules 1 (a)-(c) apply, and recursively at the next TRP, until speaker change is effected.
To what extent are these rules culturally or institutionally specific?
(1) Stew Dinner
1  DAD:   How’s everybody at school,=(   seen) no: catastrophies, (0.2)
2         everybody is in good health, no: (0.4) no members of the faculty
3         who’ve die:d,
4  CIN:   Corban uhm (0.8) he’s (fainted,ik) on was on crutches.
5  MOM:   Corban did?
6  CIN:   Mm hm.
7  MOM:   Oh. he’s such a cute little boy.
8         (0.4)
9  MOM:   No nobody died since the last weekend where we had-
10        two faculty member family deaths in one weekend.
Some ‘gross’ characteristics of conversation (from Sacks et al, 1974)
(1)     Speaker change recurs, or at least occurs
(2)     Overwhelmingly, one party talks at a time
(3)    Occurrences of more than one speaker at a time are common, but brief
(4)    Lack of gaps or overlaps are common
(5)    Turn order varies
(6)    Turn size varies
(7)    Conversation length is not specified beforehand
(8)    Topic is not specified beforehand
(9)    Turn distribution is not specified beforehand
(10)    Number of participants varies
(11)    Talk can be continuous or discontinuous
(12)    Turn-allocation is by speaker-selection or self-selection
(13)    Turns can be one word or sentence length
(14)    Repair mechanisms exist for errors and violations of turn-taking rules
These are rules for ordinary everyday conversation
These are rules in the sense that we orient to them, but don’t always follow them. We can break the rules of turn-taking for conversation, and still be in a conversation.
Formal institutional talk has different – and often simplified – rules (but perhaps not for classrooms!).
The rules for such institutional interactions are adaptations of the basic rules for conversation, usually with particular rights and positions of speaking allocated to particular roles in the institutional event.
e.g.
Courtrooms
Classrooms
Job interviews
Work meetings
Overlap occurs: the overlap resolution device
Silence occurs: usually for identifiable reasons
Some examples from classrooms: What’s going on with turn-taking here?
(2) K-TR14-500:2-3’00”
1  T-Barry:    RI:GHT. (0.2) goo:d. (.) Ho:pee:?
2              (1.2)
3  S4-Hopi:    Whad ‘as thuh noi::se. (0.3) it sounds
4              li:ke;= ?sunder:.
5              (0.4)
6  T-Barry:    Mm:.= ri:ght. grea:t. Er:in.
7  S5-Erin:    •hhh I feel dizzy; all of duh- (.) all of a
8              sudden.^good-; (.) [thank  you.< 26    S2:                                 [°Yeah.° 27    T:      hh o:kay¿ (.) very good-. (6) K-TR12:291:1-5’00” 1    T-Barry:    O?kay;whadduyuh mea-< (.) what- do you mea:n;= depth of 21                ?mi:nd. 22    S7-Dean:    s::: (.) ?so:?. (.) this u:h; (0.5) ?I: mea:n the:r? 23                (1.0) another worr:ld ?*of: the:* °eh::hn° (1.1) thei:r- 24                (0.6) °s:o:.°? (0.2) ^°I can’ exprain u::h°; (.) tsk 25                that’s like- (0.9) °u::h° (.) ?mi:nd wo:rrl’. 26                (0.5) 27    S7-Dean:    yuh know-? 28                (0.4) 29    T-Barry:    min:[d ?wor:ld.] 30    S7-Dean:        [i- ye::h. ]= id is: u:h-; (0.4) diff’ren’ (0.2) u- 31                r:if::e; 32                (0.8) 33    T-Barry:    oh a diff’ren- li:fe sty::le? 34                (0.9) 35    T-Barry:    like a- tradi[tional life sty]:le?= 36    S7-Dean:                 [Actu’lly na:ht.] 37    T-Barry:    =or so[:mething:¿ ] 38    S7-Dean:          [Actu’lly no]t. (.) dis: (0.2) I mea:n: (2.2) 39                dei:r: (2.1) mi:nd mee:th:. 40                (0.2) 41    S7-Dean:    >so’thing [like<  ?da:ht.] 42    T-Barry:              [°thei:r° ?sta:]te ev mi:nd. (0.3) s:piri?tu:l; 43                (0.3) 44    T-Barry:    Yeah;

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