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Community and Aggregates

Community and Aggregates
Prevention science provides a framework for community prevention planning that uses epidemiological data on empirically established predictors of health and behavior outcomes to identify short-term objectives for a community’s prevention efforts. It is also used to select effective preventive or control interventions that have been shown to address these risk factors and enhance community level resilience. An aggregate is a subgroup of the community population, and is also referred to as a subpopulation. Any community consists of multiple aggregates. The manner in which the aggregate is identified determines the aggregate and eventually, the community interventions that are planned. Community members can be grouped into basic aggregates based on demographic or geographic location. This is the least common aggregate used in community health practice. The most common aggregate type is the high risk aggregate. A high-risk aggregate is a subgroup or subpopulation of the community that has a remarkably high-risk commonality among its members. These may include risky lifestyle behaviors or high-risk conditions; for example, adolescent pregnancy. The aggregate concept is widely used in public health practice to target and channel interventions to aggregates or subpopulations within a community (Garry, 2009).
Christoffel’s Conceptual Advocacy Framework
Advocacy refers to the efforts that can be put with the aim of attaining a certain goal. Advocacy can take different approaches depending on the agencies and the individuals concerned. According to Katherine Christoffel, there are three ways by which advocacy can be exercised. They are referred to as the Christoffel’s Conceptual Advocacy Framework. They are; information, strategy and action. The strategies depend on the risk involved with the advocacy (Bibby, 2003). Therefore, information coincides with low risk and action with high risk.
At this stage, information about the problem is gathered. First, identify the problem whose advocacy is to be conducted. Find out the extent of the problem, how many people are affected by hypertension and to which age group do they belong. This can be done through research conducted at the area of interest. For research to be successful, money is needed. Then, get this money from the government as well as the private sectors that may devote to supporting the project. Scientific data and statistics are collected, and this will give the go ahead to the next stage of advocacy (Bibby, 2003).
At this stage, information gained from the first stage is interpreted in a manner which it can be understood to enable a course of action to be designed. Here, the areas need to be altered so as to improve the situation of hypertension among the elderly. The stage involves sensitizing all the parties, who may be concerned so as to collaborate in reacting to address hypertension. Therefore, anyone who can help in data translation including the health personnel and the general public are made aware, and they together come with a viable course of action that can be taken. When this is successfully done, step three follows (Bibby, 2003).
This is the implementation stage. This must follow the strategy stage since it is the course of action that was proposed that is going to be implemented. Actions to change the attitude of the public towards hypertension among the elderly are carried out at this stage. This will include; fund raising, printing publications and urging the government and the concerned bodies to intervene. All this will be aimed to change the attitude, the life styles and the social status of the affected people (Bibby, 2003).
Application of the strategies
The information regarding hypertension among the elderly in Miami was collected. It was found out that the most affected age is 65years and above. Hypertension is one of the killer diseases among the elderly. The information regarding the causes of the problem is collected, as well. Then strategies to address the issue be should be drawn after thorough analysis of data. How the risk factors associated with the problem should be reduced and how should the victims of the disease be handled and treated.
The strategy is finally implemented after it is developed. This will include sensitizing the elderly of Miami, who are affected and their relatives. Help them change their attitude towards the disease. They should be given access to funds which will improve their life style. These are among the advocacy strategies that can be applied in Miami.
A number of authors, beginning with Preston (2008) and Rodgers (2006) and most recently Gravelle (1998), demonstrate that the relationship between community inequality and health is necessarily implied in the curvilinear relationship between income and health seen at an individual level. At the point of adoption, it is wise to engage the community affected by hypertension. This is critical to any interdisciplinary researcher as it helps them to understand the various effects the problem has to the community.

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