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Community Health Advocacy Project Overview

Material
 
Weekly Guide
 
Community Health Advocacy Project Overview
 
Each week you will use the Weekly Guide to guide you through the process of creating a hypothetical, community health advocacy project due in Week Six. The following breakdown represents each week’s part:
 

In Week One, you select an aggregate and write questions to help you identify areas of strength and of need.

 

In Week Two, you focus on describing the characteristics of your aggregate and writing an action plan on how you would apply each of Christoffel’s three stages as an advocate for the aggregate.

 

In Week Three, you apply the three levels of prevention to your aggregate’s health concern and select the best theoretical model to help you address your advocacy concerns. This model will guide your project in Week Six.

 

In Week Four, you design a data collection tool that will be used with your aggregate population.

 

In Week Five, you formulate two outcome goals that are specific to your aggregate.

 

In Week Six, you design a hypothetical, community health advocacy project based on your completed Weekly Guide. You must submit your completed Weekly Guide in Week Six with your project.

 
 
Week One
 
Part One
 
Select an aggregate with a health concern that interests you. You will use this aggregate throughout the class as a basis for your Community Health Advocacy Project due Week Six.
Think of some questions you would like to find answers to regarding your aggregate.
Write questions that help you identify areas of strength and of need.
 

.What is the prevalence of hypertension in the elderly population?

 

Why is important to treat elderly patient with hypertension?

 

Which risk factors are associated to hypertension in the elderly population?

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Week Two
 
Part Two
 
Describe characteristics of the aggregate you chose in Part One. Include the following:
The information regarding hypertension among the elderly in Miami was collected. It was found out that the most affected age is 65years and above. Hypertension is one of the killer diseases among the elderly.
 

Definitions of community and aggregate with support from the literature

A community is a group of people who live together in a social unit which is usually bigger as compared to a household. It is a collection of several household living together. People living in a community some form of commonality in their values (University of Phoenix, 2011).
An aggregate on the other hand refers to a collection who gathers in a common place for a common reason. People gathering in an aggregate may be from different areas as opposed to a community which lives together (University of Phoenix, 2011).
 
 
 
 
 

Differences between aggregate and community

The concepts of aggregate and community-based approaches and community-based care are different in their intended focus. An aggregate approach targets a specific subpopulation within the community. The community-based approach focuses the intervention on the entire community, using population based data. In the community based data approach, interventions are designed to affect the health of the entire community at the same time, such as fluoridation of an entire community’s water supply.
 
 
 

Identification and description of an aggregate

An aggregate is a subgroup of the community population and is also referred to as a subpopulation. Any community consists of multiple aggregates. The manner in which the aggregate is identified determines the type of aggregate and eventually, the type of community interventions that are planned. The members of a community can be categorized into basic aggregates depending on the demographics. . Aggregates with high risk aggregates are explained as a subgroup with many common aspects among the members. Such high risk aggregates include lifestyle behaviors which are risky. For example, pregnancy among the adolescents. The concept of aggregates is applied in public health to direct interventions towards achieving the subpopulations that exist with a community (Garry, 2009).
 
 

Minimum of four current references in addition to the textbooks, dated from the last three years.

Garry, N. (2009). Cancer and lifestyle: why you are to blame. New York: McGraw hill publishers.
Preston, K. (2008). Why Breast cancer in Sub Saharan Africa? Nairobi: Nairobi University press.
Gravelle, T. (2008). Community health Why common in Sub-Saharan Africa? New York: HarperCollins publishers.
 
 
 
Identify Christoffel’s three stages in a conceptual framework for advocacy.
 

Information
Strategy
Action

 
Write a short action plan, in 350- to 600-words, on how you would apply each stage as an advocate for your aggregate.
Action Plan:
Information
At this stage, information about the problem is gathered. First, identify the problem whose advocacy is to be conducted. Find out the extent of the problem, how many people are affected by hypertension and to which age group do they belong. This can be done through research conducted at the area of interest. For research to be successful, money is needed. Then, get this money from the government as well as the private sectors that may devote to supporting the project. Scientific data and statistics are collected, and this will give the go ahead to the next stage of advocacy (University of Phoenix, 2010).
Strategy
At this stage, information gained from the first stage is interpreted in a manner which it can be understood to enable a course of action to be designed. Here, the areas need to be altered so as to improve the situation of hypertension among the elderly. The stage involves sensitizing all the parties, who may be concerned so as to collaborate in reacting to address hypertension. Therefore, anyone who can help in data translation including the health personnel and the general public are made aware, and they together come with a viable course of action that can be taken. When this is successfully done, step three follows (University of Phoenix, 2010)..
Action
This is the implementation stage. This must follow the strategy stage since it is the course of action that was proposed that is going to be implemented. Actions to change the attitude of the public towards hypertension among the elderly are carried out at this stage. This will include; fund raising, printing publications and urging the government and the concerned bodies to intervene. All this will be aimed to change the attitude, the life styles and the social status of the affected people (University of Phoenix, 2010).
Application of the strategies
The information regarding hypertension among the elderly in Miami was collected. It was found out that the most affected age is 65years and above. Hypertension is one of the killer diseases among the elderly. The information regarding the causes of the problem is collected, as well. Then strategies to address the issue be should be drawn after thorough analysis of data. How the risk factors associated with the problem should be reduced and how should the victims of the disease be handled and treated.
The strategy is finally implemented after it is developed. This will include sensitizing the elderly of Miami, who are affected and their relatives. Help them change their attitude towards the disease. They should be given access to funds which will improve their life style. These are among the advocacy strategies that can be applied in Miami.
 
 
Week Three
 
Part Three
 
The levels of prevention in epidemiology help provide a framework for health professionals to intervene and prevent disease, injury, or disability.
 
Write a short description of the three levels of prevention.
Apply the three levels of prevention to your aggregate’s health concern
Include a specific example of your initiative in action for each level.
 

Primary Prevention

 
At this level, individuals may not know that they are prone to hypertension. It is the right stage to ensure that the possibility of developing this condition is eliminated. This is done through observing a healthy lifestyle. There are certain lifestyles that promote hypertension such as eating junk foods, smoking, and excessive consumption of alcohol. This should be avoided in favour of healthy lifestyles. Additionally, a person should do regular physical exercises. This will help to increase bloods circulation in the body. One should further increase consumption of fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables contain essential minerals such as potassium, magnesium and calcium that help the heart to function properly (Lundy & Janes, 2009).
 

Secondary Prevention

 
This level is implemented before signs and symptoms appear although the condition may be developing in the body. It is necessary to identify any existing conditions that are likely to progress into a serious illness (Norwood, & Norwood, 2003). For example, hypertension can be detected by observing some symptoms such as shortness of breath with exertion, fatigue, chest pain, dizzy spells, decreased exercise tolerance and fainting. At this stage, the condition may not have developed, but a change in lifestyle is recommended to avoid a progression into the disease (Swanson & Nies, 1997).
 

Tertiary Prevention

 
This level of prevention is normally implemented during the initial stages of the disease. It
involves managing the disease and preventing it from advancing into the next level. For
example, hypertension may be managed or prevented from worsening by assessing
continuous medical attention. This will ensure that the signs and symptoms evident are
eliminated through drug administration. Taking the recommended medicine, eating foods that
contain nutrients for proper heart functioning are some of the preventive actions expected of
the patient. One should avoid self exposure to other diseases that may compromise the
body’s immune system (Lundy & Janes, 2009).
 
 
 
 
 
 
.
 
 
 
Select the best theoretical model that will help you answer, or provide the rationale for, why you asked the questions you did in Part One of the Weekly Guide. Consider the following questions:
 

What are the main concepts within the model?

This model of prevention was developed by Nancy Millo, who based her research on the behavioural patterns of individuals who make up the population by habitually selecting from limited choices (Kenney, 2002). She challenged the notion that, lack of knowledge was the main determinant for unhealthy behaviour.
 

What about theory explains why you asked those questions.

According to this model, the historical perspective of any illness can be found on a continuum where health and disease are on either ends. This means that a person can either stop the disease from occurring or attract the development of the disease through lifestyle (Lundy & Janes, 2009).
 
 
Week Four
 
Part Four
 
Design a data collection tool that can be used with your aggregate population. Make sure the tool contains the following:
 

Demographics—name, birth date, ethnicity, sex, education level, and so forth
The questions that you came up with in Part One and any others that you feel would apply
Two additional questions that would be consistent with the goals of Healthy People 2020
Data from reliable sources that answer each of the questions you asked

 
Include data points with two levels of data for each— if you cannot find two points, a data gap exists.
 
Data points
The table below provides a summary statistic calculated from a given population. For the age group 65 to 74 years old, males were found to have higher risk of being diagnosed with hypertension because, when lifestyle becomes expensive, they resolve to higher consumption of alcohol and unhealthy eating habits; they are also more likely to be affected by stress more than women. The study also showed that obesity is another risk that may lead to hypertension to both gender at this age. Additionally lower education level contributes significantly to hypertension because of lack of knowledge of the risk associated with hypertension.
 
Table 1: Means (standard deviations) for different categories of age and sex
< td>71.0
(17.5)

Scale
Male
Male
Female
Female

Age
65-74
75+
65- 74
75+

Risk factor
Ethnicity
63.4
(22.0)
53.9
(22.7)
61.1
(2 1.3)
47.8
(24.2)

Obesity
Functioning
66.6
(27.9)
51.7
(33.6)
63.8
(25.4)
36.2
(32.4)

Life style
58.3
(42.8)
34.3
(41.6)
57.3
(43.6)
33.2
(40.5)

smoking –
Emotional
77.2
(37.6)
54.0
(47.7)
65.1
(43.4)
53.9
(46.3)

Education level
Functioning
82.9
(23.4)
70.1
(31.7)
78.6
(28.7)
56.4
(36.5)

Bodily
Pain
66.1
(26.5)
60.5
(30.7)
61.5
(26.1)
45.0
(28.3)

Vitality
59.6
(20.6)
49.4
(23.0)
54.5(22.0)
44.0
(25.2)

Alcohol intake
Health
77.7
(17.2)
72.1
(19.6)
67.7
(19.3)

Source: (Ong, & Jordan, 1997).
Week Five
 
Part Five
 
Formulate two outcome goals that are specific to your aggregate.
Base your outcome goals on the data you collected in previous weeks. Each outcome goal must include an action verb, the result you expect, the target, and the time frame.
Consider the following questions:
 

What intervention needs to happen to meet your goals?
Who would need to be influenced to enact the program?
Would the cost for it be feasible? Why or why not?

 
 

This study primarily centres on investigating how hypertension among the elderly population may be prevented through health campaigns and via the introduction of learning programmes in learning institution.

 

The second goal of this study is to ensure the importance of creating awareness in respect to early detection and treatment of hypertension among the elderly population.

 
 
Week Six
 
Part Six
 
Review the intervention you suggested to meet your outcome goals in Part Five. Consider the following question:
 

What are two formative—conducted during the progress of the program—and two summative—conducted taken at the end of the program—evaluation measures that could be used to evaluate your intervention?

 
Formative:
 
 
 
 
Summative:
 
 
 
 
Design a hypothetical, community health advocacy project based on your completed Weekly Guide. Deliverable examples include, a Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation, a proposal for a project to a local board, organization, or a newspaper article.
 
Include the following in your project:
 

The information from your Weekly Guide
Projected effects of project success on public health policy
At least four current references, dated within the last three years

 
Note. All six parts of the weekly guide must be completed and submitted with your project to receive the total points.
 

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