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Compare Between ABS plastic and Polyester glass Composites ( GFRP) in the following properties ( mention value ) and explain :

Material selection
Compare Between  ABS plastic and Polyester glass Composites ( GFRP) in   the following properties ( mention value )  and explain  :
1- price
2- Eco  properties : Embodied energy  – CO2 footprint – Recycle
You can mention any other properties it deems important
And why prefer use ABS plastic material in the hair dryer from the previous properties .
Page 1 of 3
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)
Description
Image
Caption
1. ABS pellets. © Shutterstock 2. ABS allows detailed moldings, accepts color well, and is non-toxic and tough enough
to survive the worst that children can do to it. © Gettyimages
The material
ABS (Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) is tough, resilient, and easily molded. It is usually opaque, although some grades
can now be transparent, and it can be given vivid colors. ABS-PVC alloys are tougher than standard ABS and, in
self-extinguishing grades, are used for the casings of power tools.
Composition (summary)
Block terpolymer of acrylonitrile (15-35%), butadiene (5-30%), and styrene (40-60%).
General properties
Density
Price
Date first used
1.01e3
* 1.64
1937

1.21e3
1.81
kg/m^3
GBP/kg
1.1
0.319
3.8
0.391
18.5
27.6
31
1.5
5.6
11
1.19
0.0138

2.9
1.03
4
0.422
51
55.2
86.2
100
15.3
22.1
4.29
0.0446
GPa
GPa
GPa
Mechanical properties
Young’s modulus
Shear modulus
Bulk modulus
Poisson’s ratio
Yield strength (elastic limit)
Tensile strength
Compressive strength
Elongation
Hardness – Vickers
Fatigue strength at 10^7 cycles
Fracture toughness
Mechanical loss coefficient (tan delta)
MPa
MPa
MPa
% strain
HV
MPa
MPa.m^0.5
Thermal properties
Glass temperature
Maximum service temperature
Minimum service temperature
Thermal conductor or insulator?
Thermal conductivity
Specific heat capacity
Thermal expansion coefficient
87.9
– 128
61.9
– 76.9
123
– 73.2
Good insulator
0.188
– 0.335
1.39e3
– 1.92e3
84.6
– 234
Values marked * are estimates.
No warranty is given for the accuracy of this data
°C
°C
°C
W/m.°C
J/kg.°C
µstrain/°C
Page 2 of 3
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)
Electrical properties
Electrical conductor or insulator?
Electrical resistivity
Dielectric constant (relative permittivity)
Dissipation factor (dielectric loss tangent)
Dielectric strength (dielectric breakdown)
Good insulator
3.3e21
– 3e22
2.8
– 3.2
0.003
– 0.007
13.8
– 21.7
µohm.cm
1000000 V/m
Optical properties
Transparency
Refractive index
Opaque
1.53

1.54

2
5
4

99.9
4.03
Processability
Castability
Moldability
Machinability
Weldability
1
4
3
5
Eco properties
Embodied energy, primary production
CO2 footprint, primary production
Recycle
Recycle mark
* 90.3
* 3.64
MJ/kg
kg/kg
Supporting information
Design guidelines
ABS has the highest impact resistance of all polymers. It takes color well. Integral metallics are possible (as in GE
Plastics’ Magix.) ABS is UV resistant for outdoor application if stabilizers are added. It is hygroscopic (may need to be
oven dried before thermoforming) and can be damaged by petroleum-based machining oils. ASA
(acrylic-styrene-acrylonitrile) has very high gloss; its natural color is off-white but others are available. It has good
chemical and temperature resistance and high impact resistance at low temperatures. UL-approved grades are available.
SAN (styrene-acrylonitrile) has the good processing attributes of polystyrene but greater strength, stiffness, toughness,
and chemical and heat resistance. By adding glass fiber the rigidity can be increased dramatically. It is transparent (over
90% in the visible range but less for UV light) and has good color, depending on the amount of acrylonitrile that is added
this can vary from water white to pale yellow, but without a protective coating, sunlight causes yellowing and loss of
strength, slowed by UV stabilizers. All three can be extruded, compression molded or formed to sheet that is then
vacuum thermo-formed. They can be joined by ultrasonic or hot-plate welding, or bonded with polyester, epoxy,
isocyanate or nitrile-phenolic adhesives.
Technical notes
ABS is a terpolymer – one made by copolymerizing 3 monomers: acrylonitrile, butadiene and styrene. The acrylonitrile
gives thermal and chemical resistance, rubber-like butadiene gives ductility and strength, the styrene gives a glossy
surface, ease of machining and a lower cost. In ASA, the butadiene component (which gives poor UV resistance) is
replaced by an acrylic ester. Without the addition of butyl, ABS becomes, SAN – a similar material with lower impact
resistance or toughness. It is the stiffest of the thermoplastics and has excellent resistance to acids, alkalis, salts and
many solvents.
Typical uses
Safety helmets; camper tops; automotive instrument panels and other interior components; pipe fittings; home-security
devices and housings for small appliances; communications equipment; business machines; plumbing hardware;
automobile grilles; wheel covers; mirror housings; refrigerator liners; luggage shells; tote trays; mower shrouds; boat
hulls; large components for recreational vehicles; weather seals; glass beading; refrigerator breaker strips; conduit; pipe
for drain-waste-vent (DWV) systems.
Tradenames
Values marked * are estimates.
No warranty is given for the accuracy of this data
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)
Page 3 of 3
Claradex, Comalloy, Cycogel, Cycolac, Hanalac, Lastilac, Lupos, Lustran ABS, Magnum, Multibase, Novodur, Polyfabs,
Polylac, Porene, Ronfalin, Sinkral, Terluran, Toyolac, Tufrex, Ultrastyr
Links
Reference
ProcessUniverse
Producers
Values marked * are estimates.
No warranty is given for the accuracy of this data
Page 1 of 3
GFRP, epoxy matrix (isotropic)
Description
Image
Caption
1. Close-up of the back of the material. © Salawraspoo at en.wikipedia – (CC BY-SA 3.0) 2. Equipment operator
demonstrates fiber glass repair techniques, repairing damage on a small boat. © U.S. Navy – Public domain
The material
Composites are one of the great material developments of the 20th century. Those with the highest stiffness and
strength are made of continuous fibers (glass, carbon or Kevlar, an aramid) embedded in a thermosetting resin (polyester
or epoxy). The fibers carry the mechanical loads, while the matrix material transmits loads to the fibers and provides
ductility and toughness as well as protecting the fibers from damage caused by handling or the environment. It is the
matrix material that limits the service temperature and processing conditions. Polyester-glass composites (GFRPs) are
the cheapest and by far the most widely used. A recent innovation is the use of thermoplastics at the matrix material,
either in the form of a co-weave of cheap polypropylene and glass fibers that is thermoformed, melting the PP, or as
expensive high-temperature thermoplastic resins such as PEEK that allow composites with higher temperature and
impact resistance. High performance GFRP uses continuous fibers. Those with chopped glass fibers are cheaper and are
used in far larger quantities. GFRP products range from tiny electronic circuit boards to large boat hulls, body and interior
panels of cars, household appliances, furniture and fittings.
Composition (summary)
Epoxy + continuous E-glass fiber reinforcement (0, +-45, 90), quasi-isotropic layup.
General properties
Density
Price
Date first used
1.75e3
* 15.3
1935

1.97e3
21.6
kg/m^3
GBP/kg
* 15
*6
18
* 0.314
* 110
* 138
* 138
* 0.85
* 10.8
* 55
*7
* 0.0028

28
11
20
0.315
192
241
207
0.95
21.5
96
23
0.005
GPa
GPa
GPa

197
°C
Mechanical properties
Young’s modulus
Shear modulus
Bulk modulus
Poisson’s ratio
Yield strength (elastic limit)
Tensile strength
Compressive strength
Elongation
Hardness – Vickers
Fatigue strength at 10^7 cycles
Fracture toughness
Mechanical loss coefficient (tan delta)
MPa
MPa
MPa
% strain
HV
MPa
MPa.m^0.5
Thermal properties
Glass temperature
147
Values marked * are estimates.
No warranty is given for the accuracy of this data
Page 2 of 3
GFRP, epoxy matrix (isotropic)
Maximum service temperature
Minimum service temperature
Thermal conductor or insulator?
Thermal conductivity
Specific heat capacity
Thermal expansion coefficient
* 140
– 220
* 123
– 73.2
Poor insulator
* 0.4
– 0.55
* 1e3
– 1.2e3
* 8.64
– 33
°C
°C
W/m.°C
J/kg.°C
µstrain/°C
Electrical properties
Electrical conductor or insulator?
Electrical resistivity
Dielectric constant (relative permittivity)
Dissipation factor (dielectric loss tangent)
Dielectric strength (dielectric breakdown)
Good insulator
* 2.4e21
– 1.91e22
* 4.86
– 5.17
0.004
– 0.009
* 11.8
– 19.7
µohm.cm
1000000 V/m
Optical properties
Transparency
Translucent
Processability
Moldability
Machinability
4
2

5
3
* 150
* 9.5

170
10.5
Eco properties
Embodied energy, primary production
CO2 footprint, primary production
Recycle
MJ/kg
kg/kg
Supporting information
Design guidelines
Polymer composites can be formed by closed or open mold methods. All the closed mold methods produce fiber
orientation parallel to the mold surfaces (for extrusion, it is parallel to the inside surface of the orifice die). Of the open
mold methods, all allow multidirectional fiber orientation parallel to the mold or mandrel, except pultrusion, where the
fibers are oriented parallel to the laminate surface and the mold plates, and calendaring, where they are parallel to the
sheet surface. Lay up methods allow complete control of fiber orientation; they are used for large one-off products that do
not require a high fiber-resin ratio. Lamination and calendaring form sheets, pultrusion is used to make continuous
shapes of constant cross section and filament winding produces large hollow items such as tubes, drums or other
containers. Joints in long-fiber composite materials are sources of weakness because the fibers do not bridge the joint.
Two or more laminates are usually joined using adhesives and, to ensure adequate bonding, an overlap length of 25mm
for single- and double- lap joints or 40-50mm for strap, step and scarf joints is necessary. Holes in laminates dramatically
reduce the failure strength making joining with fasteners difficult. Composite manufacture is labor intensive. It is difficult
to predict the final strength and failure mode because defects are easy to create and hard to detect or repair.
Technical notes
The properties of long fiber composites are strongly influenced by the choice of fiber and matrix and the way in which
these are combined: fiber-resin ratio, fiber length, fiber orientation, laminate thickness and the presence of fiber/resin
coupling agents to improve bonding. Glass offers high strength at low cost; carbon has very high strength, stiffness and
low density; Kevlar has high strength and low density, is flame retardant and transparent to radio waves (unlike carbon).
Polyesters are the most widely used matrices as they offer reasonable properties at relatively low cost. The superior
properties of epoxies and the temperature performance of polyimides can justify their use in certain applications, but they
are expensive. The strength of a composite is increased by raising the fiber-resin ratio, and orienting the fibers parallel to
the loading direction. The longer the fibers, the more efficient is the reinforcement at carrying the applied loads, but
shorter fibers are easier to process and hence cheaper. Increased laminate thickness leads to reduced composite strength
and modulus as there is an increased likelihood of entrapped voids. Coupling agents generally increase tensile strength.
Environmental conditions affect the performance of composites: fatigue loading, moisture and heat all reduce allowable
strength.
Typical uses
Sports equipment such as skis, racquets, skate boards and golf club shafts, ship and boat hulls; body shells; automobile
components; cladding and fittings in construction; chemical plant.
Tradenames
Cycom, Fiberdux, Scotchply
Values marked * are estimates.
No warranty is given for the accuracy of this data
GFRP, epoxy matrix (isotropic)
Links
Reference
ProcessUniverse
Producers
Values marked * are estimates.
No warranty is given for the accuracy of this data
Page 3 of 3
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