100% Original, Plagiarism Free, Tailored to your instructions

Order Now!

Confined Space Emergency Response: Assessing Employer and Fire Department Practices.

Confined Space Emergency Response: Assessing Employer and Fire Department Practices.
Graph Chart Chart Chart Chart
Go to all 7 images >>
Wilson, Michael P.; Madison, Heather N.; Healy, Stephen B.
Labor Occupational Health PROGRAM, Center for Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Moraga-Orinda Fire Protection District
Journal of Occupational & Environmental Hygiene (J OCCUP ENVIRON HYG), 2012 Feb; 9 (2): 120-8.
Publication Type:
journal article – research, tables/charts
Major Subjects:
Occupational Hazards — Epidemiology — United States
Occupational-Related Injuries — Mortality — United States
Confined Spaces
Rescue Work
Occupational Safety
Minor Subjects:
Human; United States; Male; Female; Adult; Firefighting; Time; Organizational Policies; United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration; Questionnaires;
Funding Source; Prevalence
An emergency response plan for industrial permit-required confined space entry is essential for employee safety and is legally required. Maintaining a trained confined
space rescue team, however, is costly and technically challenging. Some employers turn to public fire departments to meet their emergency response requirements. The
confined space emergency response practices of employers and fire departments have not been previously assessed. We present (1) federal data on the U.S. occurrence
between 1992 and 2005 of confined space fatal incidents involving toxic and/or oxygen-deficient atmospheres; (2) SURVEY data from 21 large companies on permit-required
confined space emergency response practices; (3) data on fire department arrival times; and (4) estimates by 10 senior fire officers of fire department rescue times
for confined space incidents. Between 1992 and 2005, 431 confined space incidents that met the case definition claimed 530 lives, or about 0.63% of the 84,446 all-
cause U.S. occupational fatal injuries that occurred during this period. Eighty-seven (20%) incidents resulted in multiple fatalities. Twelve (57%) of 21 surveyed
companies reported that they relied on the fire department for permit-required confined space emergency response. Median fire department arrival times were about 5 min
for engines and 7 min for technical rescue units. Fire department confined space rescue time estimates ranged from 48 to 123 min and increased to 70 and 173 min when
hazardous materials were present. The study illustrates that (1) confined space incidents represent a small but continuing source of fatal OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES in the
United States; (2) a sizeable portion of employers may be relying on public fire departments for permit-required confined space emergency response; and (3) in the
event of a life-threatening emergency, fire departments usually are not able to effect a confined space rescue in a timely manner. We propose that the appropriate role
for the fire department is to support a properly trained and equipped on-site rescue team and to provide advanced life support intervention following extrication and
during ambulance transportation.
Journal Subset:
Biomedical; Double Blind Peer Reviewed; Expert Peer Reviewed; Peer Reviewed; USA
Special Interest:
Occupational Therapy
Title of paper:
1.    Summary (3 points)
2.    What did you learn from this paper? (3 points)
(Delete this note when you write) Write about the most important things you learned from this reading (example: try to compare your previous knowledge about this topic
with the learning you gained after reading this paper).
3. write your idea for the possible extension of this work  – (4 points)
(Delete this note when you write) Constructive criticism on a paper is always useful! You are encouraged to write your idea here. (example, Did author made any wrong
assumption? What is the research challenge? What would be the possible future research direction needed? Please use your creativity as much as possible)

Our Service Charter

  1. Excellent Quality / 100% Plagiarism-Free

    We employ a number of measures to ensure top quality essays. The papers go through a system of quality control prior to delivery. We run plagiarism checks on each paper to ensure that they will be 100% plagiarism-free. So, only clean copies hit customers’ emails. We also never resell the papers completed by our writers. So, once it is checked using a plagiarism checker, the paper will be unique. Speaking of the academic writing standards, we will stick to the assignment brief given by the customer and assign the perfect writer. By saying “the perfect writer” we mean the one having an academic degree in the customer’s study field and positive feedback from other customers.
  2. Free Revisions

    We keep the quality bar of all papers high. But in case you need some extra brilliance to the paper, here’s what to do. First of all, you can choose a top writer. It means that we will assign an expert with a degree in your subject. And secondly, you can rely on our editing services. Our editors will revise your papers, checking whether or not they comply with high standards of academic writing. In addition, editing entails adjusting content if it’s off the topic, adding more sources, refining the language style, and making sure the referencing style is followed.
  3. Confidentiality / 100% No Disclosure

    We make sure that clients’ personal data remains confidential and is not exploited for any purposes beyond those related to our services. We only ask you to provide us with the information that is required to produce the paper according to your writing needs. Please note that the payment info is protected as well. Feel free to refer to the support team for more information about our payment methods. The fact that you used our service is kept secret due to the advanced security standards. So, you can be sure that no one will find out that you got a paper from our writing service.
  4. Money Back Guarantee

    If the writer doesn’t address all the questions on your assignment brief or the delivered paper appears to be off the topic, you can ask for a refund. Or, if it is applicable, you can opt in for free revision within 14-30 days, depending on your paper’s length. The revision or refund request should be sent within 14 days after delivery. The customer gets 100% money-back in case they haven't downloaded the paper. All approved refunds will be returned to the customer’s credit card or Bonus Balance in a form of store credit. Take a note that we will send an extra compensation if the customers goes with a store credit.
  5. 24/7 Customer Support

    We have a support team working 24/7 ready to give your issue concerning the order their immediate attention. If you have any questions about the ordering process, communication with the writer, payment options, feel free to join live chat. Be sure to get a fast response. They can also give you the exact price quote, taking into account the timing, desired academic level of the paper, and the number of pages.

Excellent Quality
Zero Plagiarism
Expert Writers

Instant Quote

Single spaced
approx 275 words per page
Urgency (Less urgent, less costly):
Total Cost: NaN

Get 10% Off on your 1st order!