Culture and Ethical Beliefs: International Marketing Strategy
Current patterns of globalization poses many challenges to many businesses that venture into international markets. The international market has varied social, cultural, and ethical challenges that businesses should consider as they go global. These factors should be considered in the broader context since they are bound to affect the business in different ways. The company should be able to handle such challenges so that it can smoothly operate in a new country (Zekiri & Angelova, 2011).
Culture and Ethical Beliefs: International Marketing Strategy
Ethical problems are likely to increase due to globalization. In this case, companies have to deal with different counterparts in different countries. Therefore, the managers of businesses that want to go global have to understand the ethical decision making process of business in the foreign markets. Ethical issues might arise due to the divergent ethical behaviour and attitude, perceptions, and importance that is brought about by differences in culture, social setup, economic environment, demographic characteristics, and legal or political environment (Singhapakdi, Karande, Rao & Vitell, 2001).
For a company to successfully market its products in an international market, it should clearly understand the social and ethical responsibilities expected by different stakeholders in the industry. These may include customers, competitors, government, suppliers, society, and shareholders. Therefore, it is critical for a company to establish these aspects before engaging in any production or marketing activity in any foreign market. This allows the company to embed cultural, social, and ethical considerations in its business operation within such markets. Cultural consideration could be the distinctive beliefs, norms, values, and customs that shape cultural dimensions such as individualism, collectivist, power distance, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity. These dimensions determine how individuals live a society and the binding principles. They also determine consumer behaviour of any given society (Rawwas, 2001).
In the last decade, the world has witnessed changing trends in consumer behaviour. The advent of ethical consumerism in this context, issues of culture and ethical beliefs in international marketing, come into play. Values are passed on from one generation to another, and they help in directing one’s behaviour and thinking. Values shape the individual’s concern for others, morals, while others place emphasis on pragmatism, individual success, competition, and risk taking. These moral and values shape the actions and decisions of an individual or group which determine public and business ethics of any particular country (Rawwas, 2001).
Internationalisation of businesses has triggered a series of ethical issues for much business due to the factors mentioned above. International marketing among many other factors is an important ethical issue for businesses operating in international markets. Needs and wants which are driven by cultural and ethical beliefs vary from one group to another. These factors could be spring ethical conflicts for business operating in international markets. Marketing ethical issues are mainly related to product or service transparency, product or service safety, pricing, fair trading, transparency in labour sourcing, employee fair remuneration, fair and honest advertising, and product labelling. Business ethics that positively address these ethical issues create positive customer attitude and behaviour in the internal market (Singh, Jindal & Samim, 2011).
Divercity has to consider cultural, social, and ethical issues before venturing into Russia. Though globalization has been able to transform and place Russia as a magnet in global business, doing business in this country is very challenging. There exist great differences in moral and ethical consideration between Russia and many other countries in the Europe and other western countries. As opposed to other countries in Europe that more individualistic, Russia is a relatively collective society whereby individuals are viewed at a broader level than just an individual or family. The Russian culture is communist in nature, and is dominated by ruling elites. Therefore, individuals in Russia have grown up being accustomed to less individual freedom. Over the years, religion has been predominantly Orthodox contributing to subordination of personal interest to the common good by stressing the importance of authority subjugation. This cultural system has resulted in the collective achievement of rewards rather than individual rewards. The culture has discouraged the pursuit of individual well-being and considered it unethical. It is only in recent times and with the advent of globalization that Russia has recognized a few private enterprises as legal and acceptable in the country. This was after the dissolution of the socialist system. The interpretation of this is that the society will expect a lot from the businesses operating in their locality through various community social responsibility programs (Beekun, Stedham, Yamamura & Barghouti, 2003).
In terms of power distance, high power distance exists in societies with centralized decision making structures. Russia has a high power distance that is highly shaped by its collective culture. It implies that managers rely on formal rules in running of the business. The Russian culture places emphasis on formal rules that leads to high power distance between managers and subordinates. The implication of this is that workers in Russia are likely to tolerate the uneven distribution of power in the organizational chain of command (Beekun, Stedham, Yamamura & Barghouti, 2003). Additionally, it has greater influence on consumer behaviour.
Divercity has to consider changing its marketing strategy when entering the Russian market. The marketing strategy should lay great emphasis on the cultural aspects of the Russian culture and ethical values. The marketing strategy should place a lot of emphasis on the emerging trend in the entertainment that has been brought to the fore by the unprecedented globalization. This dissolution of the socialist system has sparked the emergence of market oriented values (Ardichvili et al. 2012). Though globalization had a role in the dissolution of the socialist system, the managers and stakeholder in the country are likely to continue with the traditional Russian culture of collectivism whereby businesses have to focus on societal benefit.
Divercity should that a proactive marketing decision and capitalize on the potential market in Russia. The marketing strategy must be developed that addresses consumer ethics so that the company satisfies the cultural expectations of the Russian customers. The marketing strategy must adhere to the fundamental collective spirit of Russian business ethics and morality so as to build customer loyalty.
At this period of increasing globalization, operating businesses in different countries across the globe is inevitable. However, differences in culture and ethical beliefs between different nations present challenges to international marketers. On this note marketers need to clearly under standard business ethics of marketing products or services in foreign marketer if it has to satisfy the needs and wants of stakeholders in the foreign market. This can be done by crafting a marketing strategy that captures cultural and ethical consideration of that particular foreign market.
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