Sensitization Programs Effectiveness in Changing Beliefs of Participants
Effectiveness of Community Outreach Programs and CVCT
Testing Procedures for HIV among Couples
Overcoming Perceived Barriers to VCT
Severity of HIV and Perception by Individual Couples
Demographic and Social Factors Influencing Couples Voluntary Counseling and Testing
In the attempt to use behavioral change as the means to control the spread of HIV, most programs fail because, they do not address the beliefs of their target population about HIV and related health conditions. In order to change behavior, a change of attitude toward the disease and the perceptions of the target population are paramount. Voluntary counseling and Testing is a behavioral approach of controlling the spread of HIV and other related health problems. For the practice to have a high success rate participants need to be aware of the reasons behind the exercise, they need to be convinced beyond doubt, of their safety and be assured that the program is conducted for their benefit. Until the belief resistance is concurred from the minds of the participants, no tangible progress can be sustained. It is the intention of governments and institutions carrying out voluntary counseling and testing to have a 100 per cent cooperating and success rate. Such a goal, although achievable is not easy to meet given the varied resistant factors that influence the targets of the VCT programs. So before the allocation of funds for conducting voluntary counseling and testing it is important to begin with sensitization programs for the community involved. Sensitization programs are efficient because the can be scaled to a large geographical area simultaneously to have the highest reach and maximum impact on the target population.
The theory of Health Belief Model forms the basis of this study. The theory is an address to the individual perception of threat as presented by a health problem. Moreover, the theory addresses the paybacks of evading the health threats and the factors that influence the decision to avoid the threat. In the HBM, six concepts exists that influence an individual’s health beliefs and their participation in health intervention programs aimed at preventing the transmission of HIV. According to the HBM the six constructs are the perceived susceptibility of the individual, the severity of HIV, the perceived barriers to prevention of HIV, the benefits and lastly prompts to actions and self –effectiveness (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2005).
In line with the theory of HBM, this paper review literature that point out some or all the six concepts outline in the theory as factors affecting the uptake of couples’ voluntary counseling and testing (CVCT). The literature reviewed in this paper highlight demographic and social factors that are responsible for the uptake of VCT among couples. This paper notes that in a couple, there exists difference in the role allocation, and the overall authority of the partnership. Therefore, in the paper presents cases where the difference in the perceive authority and roles has an influence on the choice of taking up couples voluntary counseling and testing.
Sensitization Programs Effectiveness in Changing Beliefs of Participants
Sensitization programs are beneficial because they provide an avenue to get feedback from the community targeted on their health belief so that later medical and behavioral interventions incorporate the findings to have the maximum effect and high success rates. To increase the uptake of behavioral intervention programs, it is important to use participants from the local community as agents for the program to gain the trust of the community. Moreover, sensitization programs that incorporate community agents for change benefit a lot from the indigenous knowledge of the community agents that would otherwise not be identified with the foreign agents. The community agents are beneficial because they tap into their multilevel network connections that they possess because of their involvement with many indigenous and exotic programs of the community.
Community agents have a wealth of experience, dealing with the same kinds of people, tackling similar problems of obtaining trust from community members and advocating for new concepts that were previously thought as non-existent in the eyes of the community. They provide the human map to the unmapped areas of the community that have not been covered by previous research and cannot be captured in an explicit study. Because of their experience of living in the community, the agents have tacit knowledge that gives the proponents of any behavioral change program the ability to develop comfortably initiatives that address the identified unique attributes of the community. Identification of the tacit knowledge that is possessed by the local community agents that will determine the success of foreign programs.
Communities may display similar characteristics, live in the same geographical area and share most of their customs and traditions; however, they may possess ingrained beliefs that are only known to an insider. The value of the ingrained and hidden belief may be so strong that when outside intervention tamper with the beliefs, they are regarded as enemies worthy of isolation and condemnation. The institutions carrying out behavioral intervention programs like HIV voluntary counseling and testing in different communities other that the institution’s own community cannot risk the change of being blacklisted by the local community. Blacklisting makes any intervention a total failure as the intended participants will find any excuse not to participate leaving the program coordinators with no data to collect or disseminate.
Byamugisha et al. (2010) conducted a survey on prenatal attendees in Uganda to investigate the influence of mother attitudes on the effectiveness of prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. The authors note that prior to their study the HIV testing rates were exceeding 90 per cent among pregnant women. This was because of the introduction of antenatal counseling and testing in June 1996. The authors wanted to find out the opinions of the pregnant women concerning the HIV testing initiative to fill the research gap that was missing in the particular area.
In their study, the authors had 388 women participating in their survey and who were first time attendees of antenatal clinic. The authors used a pretested questionnaire and their data was analyzed with descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. In their findings, the authors note that the reasons for the high turnout rates for testing were attributed to the positive attitudes that the majority of the participants had about the specific kind of HIV testing. 98.5 per cent of the participant had positive attitudes and in addition to this 60 per cent of the women had knowledge, of mother to child transmission of HIV and prevention measures. The authors refer the reader to a similar study conducted in Botswana that showed similar results that positive attitude of women towards HIV testing during pre natal care is significant in influencing their acceptance of HIV testing during the same period.
The authors attribute the positive attitude exemplified by the women to the level of information access that they had. They note that those residing in urban areas and wealthier had a firmer positive attitude compared to the other participants. This arises because of their relative ease of access to information through media. On the other hand, young antenatal attendees aged 15-24 in the surveyed in the study also demonstrated positive attitudes more than their older counterparts signifying a generational gap difference did. This study is important in demonstrating the need of changing the attitudes of the target population to guarantee the success of HIV spread prevention and control.
Kennedy et al. (2010) conducted a study to measure the evidence for a differential effect of positive interventions for individuals infected with HIV and those not infected with HIV in developing countries. The authors also measured the efficacy of interventions aimed at people living with HIV. The authors carried out a systematic review and a meta-analysis of papers published from January 1990 to December 2006. The papers reviewed were on positive prevention behavioral interventions in developing countries. The authors identified nineteen studies that they used in their analysis. They identified behavioral interventions as having a strong impact on effecting condom use among their HIV-positive participants compared to the HIV negative participants. They also noted that the interventions that targeted specific individuals living with HIV had a positive effect on condom use especially for HIV-serodiscordant couples.
Almost all the studies reviewed by the authors were counseling and testing interventions. The authors note that these types of study are most likely to report serostatus compared to other behavioral interventions. Notably, the authors did not review controlled trials and instead used broad design criteria that captured a range of effectiveness data. Therefore, the authors had more evaluation data in their analysis and this might have increased the bias inclination of their study therefore future studies on the area need to employ a more rigorous approaches. The authors were most limited by the few published papers in peer review journals. Therefore, suggest that much of the findings contained in grey literature should be reexamined with stronger methodologies so warrant their inclusion in peer review journals and contribute to the literature on the efficacy of behavioral interventions on HIV prevention among HIV-serodiscordant couples. Finally the authors admit that their review on condom use did not capture varied sexual behaviors like oral sex and mutual masturbation that pose a less risk when engaged without condoms.
The authors identify the intervention gap in developing countries where treatment of HIV+ individuals starts late when their CD4+ lymphocyte count goes below 200. This requirement leaves out a majority of HIV+ individuals who do not meet the criteria. The authors note that studies reviewed advocated for community-based interventions to reach more HIV+ individuals knowing their serostatus and but so not access regular medical care. Moreover, they note that it for the intervention to be most effective, the individuals living with HIV need to be given leadership roles in the intervention programs. Their knowledge of the conditions that their fellows facing similar health conditions face daily, thus they are best positioned to capture their trust and that on the HIV- individuals as a true testimony.
Effectiveness of Community Outreach Programs and CVCT
In a study carried out by Allen et al. (2007), where they used Influence Network Agents within the various institutions present in their communities to encourage couple to turn up for couple’s voluntary counseling and testing. The authors identified cohabiting heterosexual partners as the demographic group with the highest HIV infection rate in Africa. Use of behavior intervention method like voluntary counseling and testing targeted at couples is most effective way of reaching the target group. The study was conducted in Rwanda and Zambia within four months and had 9,900 requests for couples to turn up for the voluntary counseling and testing intervention. The study used 61 Influence Network Agents.
Couples’ VCT presents various benefits that can save lives and reduce HIV transmission as well as sexual infectious disease transmission and unwanted pregnancies. There is an increasing agreement presented by various studies that couples’ VCT should be expanded in its dissemination. The authors note that the main factor hindering the expansion of this type of behavioral intervention is cultural and logistical challenges. However, despite the challenges identified, the authors also note that influential members in most African communities are willing to increase the awareness of CVCT. Their study was carried out in two different African countries but reported similar predictions.
In their description of INAs, the authors note that INAs ascribed to specific categories among the four categories under the study, however each INA had more than one identifiable occupation and was conversant with a variety of networks such as friends, family and professional contacts. Lastly, the identification of the INA with the social setting of the target population made them most appropriate to promote CVCT. The authors note that INA presents the benefit of sustainability to an intervention program as compared to Community Workers (CW) who are discontinued when the research enrolment is reached.
To demonstrate the advantage of using INA in their study the authors note that they INAs were most effective while addressing couples because they eliminated the burden of one spouse to carry the message to the other. The INAs understood the cultural implications of their intervention. They were best positioned to deliver their invitations in discreet ways. The discretion was most effective against the fear of stigma and allowed couples to voice openly their concerns about the social fear and stigma that they embodied. The authors note that only a tenth of their invitations were delivered to couples in their homes and out of the tenth, a third to a half of the invitations lead to the target couple seeking HIV testing. The authors attribute this efficacy to the intimate relationship between the INA and the targeted couples. To highlight the importance of discreetness, the authors note that invitations for CVCT given out in public locations were less effective as compared to those delivered in homes and workplaces of the couples.
Differences in the number of successful invitations in the two countries under study were attributed to the language variance present in each country. Rwanda, which recorded the highest number of successful invitations to CVCT, has one local language while Zambia has 72 dialects arising from five major language groups. Therefore, INA in Rwanda had a higher chance of reaching more couples because they faced little or no language barrier challenge. It is worth noting that even the INA as part of the community had fears of stigmatization should they make public announcements of their intention to invite couples for HIV VCT. Therefore, public intervention although carried out, had a significant resistance level compared to discreet delivery of interventions by INAs. Therefore, the authors recommended that to increase the level of reach for the intervention more INAs need to be identified and trained. Additional INAs will boost the sustainability of the program and result in less stigmatization of couples seeking HIV testing and INAs handing out invitations.
The highlight of the study is that there are stiff a number of obstacles present in the administration of intervention programs to check the transmission of HIV. Such obstacles include lack of money that can facilitate transportation of both INAs and personnel trained to administer home based testing. Availability of funds also makes it possible to have mobile testing units that decentralize CVCT by bringing the service closer to its targets. The authors conclude that despite the increased infusion of donor support in HIV prevention and treatment programs in Africa, more needs to be done to enhance the role of prevention. Other prevention methods especially targeted at pregnant mothers to prevent mother to child transmission are less effective because they do not address the social challenge present among couples. CVCT captures this challenge because it involves both spouses and therefore is best suited as a HIV prevention program.
(Nuwaha et al. 2002) conducted a study to analyze the factors that affect the choice of HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). They used focused group discussions (FGDs) in order to provoke the aims of VCT and then conducted a survey that estimated the proportion of people who undertook VCT in Bushenyi district of Uganda. The FGDs allowed the authors to establish the kinds of beliefs present in the region that affected choice of VCT. Interviews gave the authors data on the prevalence of the elicited beliefs among the people of Bushenyi. Their qualitative survey is beneficial because it offers a richer data than what would have been provided with a quantitative survey. FGDs provided a unique opportunity for participants to know the contributions of other participants and to add on the details missed by any of the participants. The study had men and women participation in FGDs and therefore presented a rich discussion and revelation of the assigning of roles and responsibilities among women, men or spouses.
The main factor influencing the choice for VCT was the articulation of the positive and negative consequences of VCT attributed to a positive and negative test respectively. According to the authors, there is a need to emphasize more on the fact that 75 per cent of those undergoing VCT will have a negative test result. In addition to the consequences of the test, the authors note that social pressure form sexual partners are another factor influencing the VCT choices. Other than social partners, relatives also presented a significant social pressure. Therefore, health education needs to cover the significant group of influencers in addition to the target population. The authors found out that sexual partners present the most influence on the choice for VCT therefore measures aimed at tackling VCT choice challenges and promoting VCT uptake need to have specific services for couples. Other than the choice of VCT for HIV, the study identified various barriers that hindered uptake of VCT.
Most importantly, there were barriers corresponding to accessibility to VCT services. To address these barriers, interventions need to be carried out to reduce the distance travelled to access VCT centers, provide free or cheap services to mitigate the cost of VCT as a barrier, link VCT with care of HIV+ individuals and improve the quality of care such as in the provision of confidentiality when conducting VCT. When care is linked to VCT, drugs presented should be affordable to attract a high number of individuals at risk into VCT for HIV. Care should also entail treatment of other opportunistic diseases that are known to infect those living with HIV (Terris-Prestholt, et al., 2008).
Other than addressing the barriers, early testing should be encouraged because VCT is most effective in the early stages of HIV before AIDS related symptoms appear. The authors caution against lay teachings that negate the importance of VCT and instead advocate for the careful choice of partners. The belief barriers identified in the study are a lack of awareness on the need of VCT, which reduces the number of people opting for VCT for HIV. Secondly, most of the participants attributed the delay of the issuance of test results to poor quality of care in the VCT centers. Moreover, most participants expressed additional fear for cases of mislabeling of results to indicate positive where it should be negative. The overall attitude of VCT by close friends, family and partners also played a role in influencing individuals to undertake VCT. The authors note that it is important that VCT initiatives provide visible positive consequences such as positive living, confidence gain in life as well as the abstinence of practice of safer sex (Nuwaha, Kabatesi, Muganwa, & C, 2002).
Testing Procedures for HIV among Couples
Boeras et al. (2011) conducted a study to investigate the use of algorithm of three serial rapid HIV tests. The tests were used to resolve unclear serostatuses of cohabiting couples. The authors conducted the study in response to the challenge of interpreting intermediate or discrepant results from several results conducted on the same sample. In their findings, the authors note that individuals who had an intermediate/discrepant case in most cases resolve to the same result as their partners. They report that 48 per cent of discrepant/intermediate cases resolved to “infected” for individuals having infected partners compared to 11 per cent who remained uninfected yet had infected partners.
The study identifies rapid testing of HIV as a common testing method in Africa and that a sequential testing algorithm was later infused into the testing program that adds confirmatory tests. The confirmatory tests are important for resolving partner cases where either partner has a positive of discrepant result. The authors note that only 5 per cent of the individuals with intermediate/discrepant rapid test results at the first testing got a HIV positive result in a subsequent testing. Therefore, the authors recommend that partner testing should be enhanced and campaigned for so that spouses know their risk of HIV infection. In cases where only a partner is HIV positive, then the other partner is well position to take preventive measures and facilitate the management and interpretation of intermediate rapid test results.
Therefore, the study concludes that algorithms combining rapid test should be evaluated, and note that in cases where two of the three states are negative, then the partner is negative (Hollingsworth, Laeyendecker, Shirreff, Donnelly, & David, 2010). In such a case where there is no recent high-risk exposure, then partners need not seek routine follow-up. However, for individuals having an infected partner, there is need for a routine follow-up after a month irrespective of their serostatus.
(McKenna, et al., 1997) Confirm that rapid test algorithms have a high specificity of 99.4 per cent. In addition, same day results on tests reduce the fear factor that is associated with many couples choosing not to undertake VCT. Their study findings indicate that VCT that offered same-day test results increased the confidence of couples and was a major factor in ensuring that community promotion of VCT was effective.
Concling et al. (2010) did a study to authenticate the feasibility of couples voluntary counseling and testing in antenatal care as well as measure how couples comply with prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. The study included 3633 women who received VCT and 1619 women who received CVCT. Their study was generally homogenous in demographics. The mean of the women in the study has two previous births and had cohabited with their partners for at least five years. From the findings of their study, the authors note that the CVCT offered on weekends in high-volume antenatal clinics were reasonable. In additions, cases where partners participated together reported a high chance for the women to present the study voucher at the time of delivery indicating that they had positive attitudes about CVCT. They note that promotion of CVCT and invitations of couples to the centers increases the uptake of couples’ counseling.
However, a limitation of the study is that most of the women who agreed to have CVCT with their partners may represent a unique sample of the target population not reflective of the true demographic distribution. Secondly, the study was conducted in areas where PMTCT, VCT and CVCT were relatively new concepts and the result might not be very reflective of the current situation in those study areas. Nevertheless, the findings of the study are important for shoeing that couple testing is effective to some degree in addressing the transmission of HIV among couples cohabiting. In addition, the study served an important role of analysis some of the factors that affect the choice of couple in taking up CVCT such as stigmatization and awareness of the services available. A comprehensive approach incorporating the family is important in preventing transmission of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa as noted by the study and therefore, couple participation should be enhanced by using inducements and other influencing factors.
Overcoming Perceived Barriers to VCT
Coates, Ritcher & Caceres (2008) studied behavioral strategies that reduce HIV transmission. Their study notes that HIV prevention needs a radical behavioral intervention for individuals. When the intervention is successful, it should be sustained. The study recommends that behavioral strategies be detached from their strict reliance on theoretical and methodological thinking. In this case, studies should cease to focus on HIV prevention in niche areas and move into comprehensive interventions that record varied inputs, levels and outcomes. Therefore, the studies should have a social behavioral science capacity that can effectively disseminate approaches and support strategies that are developed from the ground and scaled up.
The authors highlight the need to have individuals on the ground, conversant with the behavioral science. The individuals should be able to incorporate the knowledge with a creative thought approach to evaluate prevention and assessment strategies on the ground. The need for having grounds up approach like community-based programs is that the success of such programs depends on the capacity for implementation and sustenance. Therefore, not only should funding for such programs be provided, but a capacity building aid should be provided so the community based organization are able to carry out behavioral strategies campaigns.
Most successful programs of HIV prevention incorporated aspects of community mobilization, thus elevating it to a significant role in the prevention of HIV transmission. To strengthen further the mobilization of communities, there is a need to have strong leaders at all levels of decentralizations that ensure there is commitment and sustenance of the intervention programs.
The authors note that HIV treatment in resource-rich countries has been successful at prolonging life however, worldwide a similar success rate in the prevention of HIV has yet to be achieved. In order to achieve a similar rate of success, there should be an inclusion the availability of items for elimination of social impediments that assist universal prevention of HIV. These include technologies and devices like condoms, clean needles reducing the resolve to use drug treatment, increase access to information, skills and services for prevention of HIV. Another major impediment to HIV prevention is the objection of scientific proven methods for reducing behavioral risks. This arises out of the fear of going against cultural norms.
Ramjee et al. (2010) review their experiences in conducting multiple community-based HIV prevention trials in South Africa. The authors note that in Africa the predominant route for aids transmission was heterosexual sex in 2007. The country of study, South Africa had the highest HIV prevalence in the world as of 2008. The country in its programs to prevent HIV transmission has included male circumcision, vaccines, and microbicides among others. Behavioral interventions included the virginal diaphragm, and stepping stone trial.
The study used community-based sites that were set up with the help of local community leaders. Before the setup, several meetings were held to ensure that the community was in agreement with the new interventions that the team of researchers was bringing in. Moreover, meetings with the community stakeholders assist the researchers to get the background information on the study area. The authors point put that community stakeholders and Community Working Groups were powerful in the origination of suitable language lexis, messaging and distribution of trial results.
They also note that though their study was targeted at women, the involvement of male participants became apparent when given that women cannot practice prevention measures without the knowledge and approval of men. Therefore, in order to allow women to use preventive devices, their partners and other male had to be involved in the study, especially on the sensitization part. The benefits of their intervention was that training provided to community members allowed them to offer proper care to HIV-positive members and afforded them skills that allowed them to seek jobs. Most jobs available for the community-trained participants were in the health sector in their communities.
The main challenges of the study were in recruitment for the intervention program. Those not qualifying for recruitment after screening tests manipulated other against enrolling for recruitment such as asking them to lie about their sexual encounters. The incident demonstrates the impact that peers have on influencing behavior change among adult women. However, the relatively high reimbursement for participation in clinical trials contributed to the high turnover for recruitment. Most of the women in the study had no other source of income. Despite the income status, most of the women’s intention was altruistic. The main challenge for uptake of condom use was the participants own apathy and beliefs in addition to their fear of condemnation from their partners and family. Other minor challenges were in the difficulty of participants to keep to the schedule of contraception, the reluctance of using contraceptive because of the perceived side effects. Therefore, such participants reported cases of contraception failure that also negatively affected the decision of others.
Other challenges in the administration of the intervention were presented by the nature of rural population of the area under study who were highly mobile. Due to socio economic hardships, the populating frequently migrated to urban areas in search of employment. Therefore, follow-up measures were often required and were not very successful. Lack of health infrastructure is also a major challenge for the sustainability of intervention programs. The high burden of HIV in hospitals and clinics of developing countries strain the available human resource that has to cater also for other patients and medical conditions.
Betancourt et al. (2010) present findings and barriers of the delivery of family-centered PMTCT. They note that HIV is a family illness. HIV affects all members of a household and therefore needs to be approached like a family illness in its prevention. Therefore, there is need to involve all household members even when the main target of the prevention intervention is an individual. Provision of testing and treatment to other members of the family during the study influenced women to be more participatory in their intervention programs. Women adhered more to their PMTCT regimens and were freer at disclosing their HIV+ status to their partners. The positive result is important in any intervention program because it results to a reduced chance of registering vertical transmission of HIV. This is possible when testing is done early and there is an appropriate support and counseling of a woman sharing her test results with her partner. Disclosure among partners enhanced by the targeting of the household rather than the individual, promote the use of condoms and other prevention methods among serodiscordant couples. Moreover, the disclosure is effective in preventing future transmission in pregnancies.
The main challenges for women who are HIV+ to disclose their statuses to their spouses are the fear violence and abuse. In such cases, the partners usually have no knowledge of the importance of supporting and engaging with their partners to reduce their risk of HIV. When a household approach is used in HIV prevention, such challenges are reduced or eliminated. In Kenya, the authors note that women who turned up with their partners for testing demonstrated a high probability of returning for antiretrovirals.
The main challenge facing the adoption of family based approach is the continued focus on simplistic methods that only concentrate on the prevention of HIV from an individual’s perspective (Mayer & Pizer, 2009). The authors note that literature documenting the efficacy of family-centered care is minimal. Therefore a paradigm shift should be embraced for behavioral interventional in the treatment and prevention of HIV. There is need to move away from the current focus on segmented delivery of isolated ART or isolated PMTCT.
Severity of HIV and Perception by Individual Couples
Beyeza-Kashesya et al. (2010) discuss the determinants of the desire to have children for partners who are serodiscordant and are receiving care in Uganda. The authors note that gender of the HIV+ partner is important in influencing the desire to have a child by the couple. In addition, the cultural significance of children and the level of communication between the partners. The study participants’ average age was 33 years and females were on average 30 years old. The study exemplified the need for serodiscordant couples in Uganda to have children. Given that serodiscordant partners are highly risked, it is worrying that a strong desire to have children negates the high risk of being infected with HIV in either of the partners. The authors note that the partner influence on the choices of the other partner in preventing HIV transmission is very significant. In 80 per cent of the studied cases, the belief that a partner wanted children and the actual desire for children were corresponding to each other. However, only 36 per cent of the study participants had talked about how to get pregnant. This highlights the relative high level of non-verbal communication that is present among HIV couples. With the knowledge that partners can perceive their spouse desire in a non-verbal way, health care providers can be able to influence the behaviors of HIV couples through one partner and thus control the transmission of HIV. Male partners who are culturally regarded as the head of the family and the decision makers therefore need to be key targets in the intervention programs for couples. Men need to be helped in understanding their tactical position in the prevention of HIV transmission.
The study notes that in all cases participants did not change their intentions to have children even after discussions with healthcare workers. The couples living with HIV believed that the participants were against their decision for childbearing. When patients shun the advice that they are given by health worker then they jeopardize the efforts to prevent transmission of HIV. While it might be possibly correct that healthcare workers actually are indecisive when childbearing by people living with HIV AIDS (PLWHA) is in questions, they are better placed to influence the choice made by couples. Health workers mostly live in the same community with their patients and therefore understand the socio economic and cultural challenges that their patients face. In this regard, health workers need empowering on information, skill so that they are more sensitive to the needs of the HIV+ people. This should be provided with the aim of ensuring that PLWHA continue childbearing by using HIV preventive approaches.
Heikinheimo & Lähteenmäki (2009) indicate that the discussion of risk of HIV should consider two factors in the view of heterosexual intercourse, the infectious of the infected partner and the risk of the uninfected spouse. They note that the circulation of the HIV load of the infected spouse highly predicts the risk of heterosexual transmission.
According to a study by (Helleringer, Kohler, & Frimpong, 2011), VCT for HIV is lower among individuals from poor households in sub-Saharan states. As a result, there is a significant inequality in the access to VCT for HIV and ARV treatment. The authors note that VCT for HIV in home-based campaigns had a higher uptake in their study among poor households because it reduced the existing socioeconomic challenges that were previously a hindrance. Among the households studied, the authors identified poor accessibility of health facilities, fatalism as some of the main barriers. Others were stigma related to HIV and defeatism that made the respondents of the study less responsive to VCT for HIV. They note that although hospitals provide routine VCT for their attendees, the accessibility of healthcare facilities by the poorest individuals was a challenge due to their socioeconomic status. Moreover, other initiatives targeting workplaces also missed the poorest that were less represented in the workplaces (Corbett, et al., 2006). The poverty status of couples also influences the probability of women depending on their husband’s approval to attend VCT services. In most cases, women were unemployment and responded in the study that they relied on the approval of their husbands who provide money for transport to health facilities.
Arthur et al. (2007) explored the behavior change of clients to VCT health centers. They report that social desirability is a major factor affecting the reporting of risky behavior among couples and during VCT sessions. The authors note that couple counseling may be a viable intervention in seeking disclosure among for HIV+ clients of VCT centers.
Thior et al. (2006) looked at socio-demographic predictors of acceptance of VCT. Their study covered post-partum women in Botswana. They note that acceptance for VCT dropped significantly as age of respondents increased. They attribute the cause of the drop to preciseness of the high risk of HIV infection by older women and the subsequent desire for protection from public shame. In addition, HIV is the lead cause for adult deaths and therefore older women are against testing for fear of getting HIV+ results. Married women had a less likelihood of accepting VCT because of the African setting where they are viewed by society to be under the authority of their husbands. Other than age and marital status, education level of the women under the study was also a major factor. Educated women were less positive about accepting VCT because they were knowledgeable of the risks of status loss due to a HIV+ result.
Literature examined in this paper has demonstrated demographic and socio factors such as age, wealth and location of the couples targeted for CVCT play a key role in ensuring whether the interventions will reach their intended targets. In recognition of the individual choices of each spouse, this review has also highlighted the concepts of Health Belief Model that shape up the relationship of couples toward acceptance of CVCT together with other behavioral interventions aimed at prevention of HIV transmission. Major challenges that have been highlighted in the paper include the influence that partners have on the choice of their spouses, the cultural perception of the role and expectations of each spouse and the serostatus of the dominant partner.
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