Detox Inpatient vs Outpatient
Today, there are major types of treatments provided by medical health providers in the world. These forms include inpatient and outpatient treatments. Inpatient treatment refers to services provided by medical health providers such as hospitals, clinics, and rehabilitation centers that offer a twenty-four hour medical care to patients. In this case, patients are admitted in a health facility for a number of days. The period of stay in a medical facility is determined by the duration the patient is expected to take before recovery. On the other hand, outpatient treatment is a treatment whereby the confinement of the patient is not required. Outpatient treatment is common and useful for the working and school-going patients.
Alcohol and substance abuse are very common in the United States. Alcoholic beverages are commonly present during dinners, sporting, and recreational events throughout the United States and changes in lifestyle (Ruiz, Strain & Lowinson, 2011; Hasin, et al., 2007). These events have led to addictions and abuse of alcohol and other substances. Furthermore, these addictions have come along with severe consequences ranging from domestic violence to health defects (Ries, 2009). There has been a rise in the number of car accidents, and this has been attributed to alcoholism (Blanco, et al., 2007). Alcoholism and opiate abuse has been blamed for an increased number of deaths each year. Emotional trauma, loss of job, marriage breakups, and ruined individual reputation are the most common effects of alcoholism and substance abuse (Pettinati, et al., 2008; Claus, et al., 2007). From current studies, it has been revealed that alcoholism contributes to health issues such as liver diseases and cancer (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012).
The effects of opiate abuse and alcoholism have become a social concern. Therefore, there is the need to help deal with the situation. The US does not have many options that help address this problem. Inpatient and outpatient rehabs are common treatment facilities that offer detoxing therapies to opiates and alcoholics in the United States. Opiate and alcoholic detoxification depends on the severity of alcohol and substance abuse (Abadinsky, 2011).
Comparison between detox opiate and alcohol inpatient and outpatient settings
There exist a number of similarities between outpatient and inpatient detox opiate and alcohol treatments. Both treatments involve various therapies that include individual and groups. Groups include friends and family of the addict. Furthermore, both treatment modalities provide guiding and counseling to patients and patients’ families (Strang, 2011).
However, there are substantive differences between the two treatments regimes. Detox opiate and alcohol inpatient treatment isolates and puts the patient on a twenty-four hour care within a treatment facility. The main objective for a twenty-four hour care is to avoid distraction of patient recovery. It also helps to avoid the temptation to engage in alcohol abuse before full recovery (Green, Bowie & McGraw, 2011; Brizer& Castaneda, 2010). The period of admission in outpatient treatment regime varies greatly. In most cases, inpatient treatment is recommended for patients who are heavily addicted to alcoholism. Inpatient treatment helps to eliminate the side effects of opiates and reduces the desire for patients to take opiate drugs (Mark, Montejano, Kranzler, Chalk &Gastfriend, 2011).
Inpatient opiate and alcohol detoxification is more expensive than outpatient detoxification. The cost factor is justified by the specialized treatment offered by inpatient rehabs as compared to outpatient rehabs. The ratio of patient completing inpatient detoxification successfully is higher than the rate among the outpatients (Brizer& Castaneda, 2010).
Outpatient treatment is usually recommended for patients who are not heavily addicted to alcohol and opiate abuse. This treatment regime involves frequent interval visits to rehab facilities for therapy. For instance, therapy visits can be once to three times per week, and can run for several weeks or months. It involves individual or group therapy for different sessions that the patient attends (Doweiko, 2010).
Opiate, alcohol, and benzo abuse
Opiate abuse in the United States takes various forms and remains dangerous. Opiate abuse results from abuse of heroin, morphine, and dependency on painkiller drugs (Vicodin, Oxycontin, and Oxycodone) and other drugs. Statistics show a rising trend in opiate substances abuse in the United States (Maremmani, et al., 2007; Wilson &Kolander, 2011). By the year 2007, the number of people who had abused prescription painkillers was approximated to be close to 2,500,000 people. The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) reported that for year 2004, there were more than 100,000 emergency department visits associated with opiate abuse in the United States (SAMHSA, 2009). From the national figures, opiate abuse was highest for patients aged between 21 to 54 years old. There were no considerable variations in this age group with respect to use of nonmedical opiate drugs. The number of deaths from abuse of methadone had increased to over 4500 people by the year 2005. Furthermore, survey carried out in the year 2006 showed that over five hundred thousand people had once used heroin in their lifetime (Recovery Connection, 2012).
In New Jersey (NJ), heroin is the most commonly abused opiate drug. In the year 2007, close to 800 people died in New Jersey due to opiate and alcohol abuse related incidences (Barlow, 2008). However, the rate of death due to drug abuse is below the national average. In the year 2010, more than 7234 people were admitted in rehabs for suffering from abuse of opiate substances and other drugs. Furthermore, NJ had a total number of 70,121 people admitted for alcohol and drug abuse in different facilities within the state. Majority of the patients were male (SAMHSA, 2008b).
Connecticut is ranked among the states with the highest prevalence of drug abuse. Connecticut rate of drugs and alcohol abuse has been above the national level rates. The rate of alcohol and opiate abuse for age group 18 to 25 reached its highest point during the year 2004 to 2006. Most of the treatments offered in Connecticut can be categorized as outpatient treatment, and the lowest percentage of patients treated at the facilities are below 18 years (SAMHSA, 2008a).
The rate of alcohol and opiate abuse in New York has also been at par and sometimes above the national average. In the year 2006, outpatient and inpatient statistics show that 104,790 outpatients were treated at different facilities in NY. The rest were inpatients who were treated at private and public facilities. An approximated five per cent of 118,892 patients were under five years of age. Furthermore, in the year 2006, the number of alcohol abuse admission appeared to have dropped for the first time in NY in fourteen years period. However, there was a modest increase in the number of admission of marijuana and heroin patients within the same period (SAMHSA, 2012).
The National Survey on Drugs Use and Health (NSDUH) noted that alcohol and drug abuse alcohol rate were below or at par with the national drug abuse and alcoholism statistics. This was observed during the comparison of Pennsylvanian statistics between the years 2005-2006 and 2002-2003. Alcohol dependence rates were well below the national rates and among the lowest in the U.S (SAMHSA, 2010). Majority of the facilities in PA offer detox programs to opiate addiction on an outpatient basis. Out of the 44,439 patients visiting different facilities in one day, over 87 per cent are outpatients. Only 6 per cent of the day visits in Pennsylvanian were under the age of 18. The number of alcohol admissions at rehabs has reduced considerable from 38 per cent in the year 1992 to 22 per cent by the year 2005. However, the number of opiate admissions has increases from 13 per cent to 44 per cent within the same period (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011).
Treatment detox models
There are five detox models common in the U.S. These include medical, rapid, pure, integrated, and social models (Brizer& Castaneda, 2010). Medical detox model use drugs and medical procedures to help alleviate drug and alcoholism side effect. In the year 2011, 436,000 people entered inpatient and outpatient medical detox assistance in United States. Almost half of the patients received alcohol detox whereas 33 per cent received opiate detox (The Canyon, 2012; Gifford, 2010).
Alcoholism and opiate abuse remain a major problem in the United States. From the analysis, it is evident that there is an urgent need to intervene and alleviate alcoholism and substance abuse through affordable rehabilitation. In the end, this will reduce the rate of death resulting from accident, violence, illnesses, and injuries sustained while under the influence of alcoholism and opiate abuse.
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