diagnosis Models-use of Multi-Perspective ‘Four Frame’ Model
Diagnosis is described as the process of evaluating the existing structures, policies, and processes in an organization with a preconceived purpose of enhancing effectiveness and efficiency. The ‘four frame’ model describes an organization as a creation of four different frames which are political frame, human resource frame, structural frame and symbolic frame. The efficiency of this model is centered on its ability to respond to change and development in a more inclusive way. It appreciates the importance of leadership and the relationship that exists between different functional parts of an organization. (DON’T DESCRIBE THE PROCESSES)
(DO EVALUATE THE MODEL’S UTILITY TO MEET THE TASK: CONSIDER INDUSTRY USAGE, SIMPLICITY, INTERATION WITH ITS ENVIRONMENT SEE EXAMPLES AND END OF THIS POOR SUBMISSION)
Organizational change is shaped by the ability of leaders to examine change from an organizational structure perspective. According to Sowell (2014), the four frames model of diagnosis helps to describe the different organizational structures that can be used to drive change and development. A study done at the Oregon State University Libraries indicate that most of the decisions are made from a structural perspective. It is important to consider the whole system as a creation of small subsystems with different policies and programs.
The modern economic world demands that a company should embrace good structures with limited errors to effectively compete on a global scale. There is increasing need to globalize and capture a full market. Bolman and Deal (2008) address the need to restructure a company in order t meet the new sensitivity of the global market. The frame theory involves routines that break down an organization into a series of mental models, assumptions or ideas. According to Bolman and Deal (2008), a group can be viewed through four frames: political, structural, human resources and symbolic. The baseline of diagnosis is to help examine the existing policies, programs, and structures of an organization and describe the future of the team. Framing involves the division of an organization into manageable serviceable parts that are further reviewed with a preconceived purpose: to increase efficiency and quality of production. Bolman and Deal (2008) demonstrate how framing as a model of diagnosis can help connect different functional parts of an organization to attain the desired level of production and efficiency.
The complexity of the economic world limits many teams to fit in their established line of business perfectly. Leaders who perceive an organization as a single entity often risk losing the competitive advantage of the organization. A perspective that appreciates the complexity of the modern economic world achieves more success that an inflexible traditional view (Grace et al., 2011). It is hard to understand change and start perceiving the organization as entities that are made up of distinct interdependent units. However, it is more reassuring to risk the division of an organization and understand it as a single interconnected unit that consists of inter-reliant sub-functional entities. The success of multi-perspectives is tied in the ability to base decisions, policies, and programs on predetermined assumptions. In the human resource frame, for instance, it is assumed that organizations exist to serve human needs rather than the reverse. It creates a perception that centers the workability and efficiency of policies and programs on their ability to meet the utility of the customers. The frame handles the organization’s ability to relate with people and embrace their personal convictions within the structure of the organization. It is encouraging to consider framing as a quality assuring model of diagnosis (Grace et al., 2011).
The success of any organization is rooted deep in the leadership techniques employed in the organization. Leaders are responsible for the success or the failure of the set organizational goals. A good leadership technique that is responsive to change is likely to record more success that a stable preconditioned leadership structure. Bolman and Deal (1991) argue that leaders view experience through a set of preconditioned lenses and filters. Organizations often become the victims of their inflexible procedures that rely on predetermined conditions. A failing leader will rather blame his failure on the circumstance that questioning their own ability to respond to market conditions. The economic world is vibrant and flexible. It keeps changing every single day with the invention of new structures and the introduction of new competitors in the market. An aspect that is considered as potency today is likely to be a challenge the following day. The frame model gives the organization a chance to perceive the leaders as facets affected by some internal and external forces. Failure to respond to these forces affects the effectiveness of the set policies that later leads to the inability of the set organizational goals. Reframing leadership allows the organization the ability to handle specific sections as independent entities. Leaders in the designed frames are described by specific factors that amount to a well-developed leadership teams. For instance, leaders in the human resource frame are centered on the ability to support and empower. The description when reinforced will ensure the efficiency of the human resources. Bolman and Deal (1991) describe that the cycle under the framing model is self-qualifying since the competence of one frame qualifies the other frames.
Ibrahim (2011) argues that the complexity and density of leadership differs from one sector to another. In a study to determine the multi-dimensional leadership orientations used by department heads in Malaysian polytechnics, the frame model is employed. The center of the study is to appreciate the existence of diversity in leadership roles and how the different leaders should handle their duties (Ibrahim, 2011). The findings of the study indicate that the degree of lecturers’ commitment varied from one department head to another.
Organizations manage and respond to ongoing change and development. The question of change and development cannot be handled with a robust solution (Howard et al., 2009). There is no solution to change that can ensure the inflexibility of both internal and external factors affecting a given organization. The multi-perspective framework develops a broader and more inclusive perspective that helps respond to all the sectors of the society. In a survey designed to measure how managers utilize and perceive the multi-view frames, the results show the difference between individual frame choice and the perceived company choice. Personal framework preference represents the organizations that are strongly political oriented. A politically oriented organizational setting lacks the trust that is needed to navigate change and development.
Every effort to improve the effectiveness and productivity of an organization is based on assumptions. The assumptions describe the foundation upon which policies, programs, and leadership structures are built (Gallos, 2006). Gallos (2016) describes the multi-perspective four frames as a diagnostic model that organizes the basic elements of organization thought and helps facilitate a comprehensive and manageable approach to organizational complexity.
Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (1991). Leadership and management effectiveness: A multi‐frame, multi‐sector analysis. Human Resource Management, 30(4), 509-534.
Fruehauf, J. (2014). A Case Study for Small Manufacturing in the Globalized Economy Using the
Principles of Bolman and Deal. In Human Capital without Borders: Knowledge and Learning for Quality of Life; Proceedings of the Management, Knowledge and Learning International Conference 2014 (pp. 1059-1062). ToKnowPress.
Gallos, J. V. (2006). Reframing Complexity: A Four-Dimensional Approach to Organizational
Diagnosis, Development, and Change. Organization Development: A Jossey-Bass Reader, Aug (3), 1-22.
Grace, D., Korach, R., Riordan, K., & Storm, K. (2011). Assessment and intervention using the
perspective of four organizational frames.Journal of Business & Economics Research (JBER), 4(10).
Howard, C., Logue, K., Quimby, M., &Schoeneberg, J. (2009). Framing change. OD Practitioner, 41(1), 25–31.
Ibrahim, M. S. (2011). Multi-dimensional leadership orientation and lecturers’ work
commitment: A mediating effect in leadership effectiveness among Malaysian polytechnic’s heads of department. African Journal of Business Management, 5(22), 9588.
Sowell, S. (2014). Building a New Paradigm: Analysis of a Case Study in Organization Change in Collection Management Using Bolman’s and Deal’s Four-Frame Model.
Collection Management, 39(2-3), 211-226.
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