The three planets are approximate equidistance from the sun, this means that, their temperatures are approximate almost the same. In order to explain why the atmosphere of Mars, Venus and Earth are different, the topic has discussed the characteristics of atmosphere of each of the three planets under investigation and from the characteristics; this discussion has Cleary brought up the differences in atmosphere of the three planets under the study.
Venus and mars do not support life this is because, Venus is too hot while Mars is too cold to support any life and In terms of size and Mass, Venus is 95% bigger than the earth and 82% of the Earth mass (Koupelis, P79).The only similarity between the earth and Venus is that, both planets have iron nickel core and rocky crust. Another significant difference is that, Venus is made up of 96% carbon dioxide, 3.5% nitrogen and 0.5% other gases unlike the Earth and Mars. Venus is also made up of sulphuric acid droplets that form a cloud; those clouds prevent us from seeing the planet. Additionally, Venus present another significant difference from the Earth in terms of air pressure, it has an air pressure of 92%times more than the Earth and 82% mass more than the Earth mass(Koupelis.,PP77-89).The lower clouds in Venus move at a speed of 210 kilometres per hour while the upper clouds move at a speed of 370 kilometres per hour unlike in planets Earth.Additionally,in Venus the clouds that are near the Poles are weaker and do not change with changes in height ,this is because of the presence of a huge hurricane-like vortex. And in the centre of this vortex there are no winds that are found here.Venus has presented itself as the hottest of all the three planets under investigation this is because, the planet has a temperature of 477 degrees Celsius and is being said that, the planet could have been twice hotter than it is know, if not for the presence of an atmosphere in this planet (Thompson, Graham R, and Jonathan Turk.,PP.292-563).The hotness is said to have been caused by a huge green house effects that prevent the heat from escaping the space; this means that the Super-abundance of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is responsible for huge green house effect. In addition, the presence of large content of carbon dioxide in Venus presents another significant difference between the three planets. Unlike Venus, carbon dioxide in the Earth is locked up in sediment contents.
According to Gorlitz (78) Venus was initially cooler than it is now. This is because of the abundance of water and that, most carbon dioxide was locked in rocks many years ago. However the situation has evolutionally changed through the process called runaway green house, whereby, Venus has turned up to be the hottest planet .This can be attributed to its closeness to the sun than the Mars and the Earth. Another difference is that, rocks in Venus are harder than those rocks’ in the earth (Gorlitz, P108). This can be explained by the loss of water from the rocks through a process called dissociation. This means that, water in Venus was always in gaseous form such that, it could rise high up in the atmosphere whereby it was heated by Ultraviolet light from the sun which dissociated water molecules into oxygen and hydrogen atoms. Additionally the Earth and Venus differ in terms of ratio of ordinary hydrogen to deuterium. On Earth, the ratio of Ordinary hydrogen to deuterium is 1000 to 1while in Venus the ratio of deutranium is a bout ten times greater. Unlike the Earth were volcanic eruptions is still occurring, in Venus such eruptions are no longer occurring (Lang., P66).
Unlike Venus and Mars, the Earth, has an atmosphere that is 78%nitrogen and 21% oxygen and less than 0.0001% Earth mass, with 0.023% amount of water (Koupelis, P, 82). The planet has free oxygen and it is the only planet that supports life unlike Venus and Mars. However, this oxygen is at a risk of disappearing because of massive destruction of plants and hence preventing the photosynthesis to take place, this further lead to lack of adequate amount of oxygen being realised by plants into the atmosphere as a waste product (Lang, P., 66).Unlike Venus, most of the Earth is water. This water helps to prevent the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide from getting too high by acting as a solvent where carbon dioxide dissolves. Additionally the Earth has a protective layer called ozone that prevents most of the ultraviolet rays from reaching the earth surface .The ozone layer helps to promote life on the earth surface.
Mars differ with the Earth in many diverse ways among those ways may be explained in terms of mass, size, percentage of the gas content, temperatures among many other differences .According to Koupelis (78), Planet Mars has a mass of 0.1 of the earth mass and a thin atmosphere of 0.01as compared to that of the Eath.This planet also does not have much heat as compared to the Earth and Venus. In addition, it has a carbon dioxide content of 95% and Nitrogen of 3%.Also Mars has a rapid cooling system and an earth layer of atmosphere that makes a green house effect to be insignificant. At night, the temperature at Mars are approximate 180degrees Fahrenheit, this temperatures are too low to support life. The large disparity in term temperature in Mars, lead to emergence of a very strong winds which whip all over creating a dust. This durst intern covers the entire planet making the planet to be invisible for the next six months (Thompson, Graham R, and Jonathan Turk., P.78). This scenario presents another significant difference between the three planets. Additionally Mars differ with the three planets in terms of air pressure, in this planet, air pressure is much too low for pure liquid water to exist.This is because at a very low pressure, water can exist either inform of frozen liquid or as a gas. Another significant discrepancy is that, unlike the Earth, Mars has no protective Ozone layer and therefore all Ultra-violet light can reach Mars at ease (Gorlitz. P.106). Additionally Mars is a cold desert, this situation can be attributed to the fact that, Mars is at a very low gravity and that a lot of asteroid blaster part of the atmosphere. More importantly is that, Mars has a run away refrigerator greenhouse effect that started occurring many years ago unlike the rest of the two planets under investigation.
Therefore, based on the above discussion, Cleary observed how the atmosphere of the Mars, Earth and Venus differ from each other in terms of temperatures air pressure, gases content, size and mass among other many differences as discussed above as well as what causes the differences in atmosphere between the three planets under investigation.
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