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Effect of culture on negotiations:

Paper Outline

Effects of intercultural perceptions and behaviors
Importance of culture in contributing to negotiation outcomes.

Skills and attributes for intercultural negotiation

Importance of cultural differences in determining dispute tolerance


Culture can be defined as defined as knowledge is that people use to interpret experiences and actions around them. This knowledge is acquired and it influences the value people place on or attitudes and behaviors towards people or thing (Ahlstrom & Bruton, 2009).
Effects of intercultural perceptions and behaviors
Negotiation is a process that has stages, usually at the end there are decisions to be made, agreement to be reached and finally an exchange process. The exchange can either be of tangible things such as land or money, on or intangible like confession, trust or a withdrawal of a statement made. When a negotiation process involves parties from different cultures, there will be big differences over what constitutes an agreement and how it is reached. In addition parties will differ on the extent of detail and closure involved, the expectation on implementation procedures and how to value the items to be exchanged in an attempt to define equity and fairness (Moore & Woodrow)
Importance of culture in contributing to negotiation outcomes.
Differences in national, organizational or individual cultures may be significant factors that determine the success or failure of intercultural negotiation. Diversity can create barriers to reaching an agreement or can be a means of finding mutually acceptable settlement, particularly because each party has different interests, priorities and values things differently. This enables them to identify and agree quickly on their elegant negotiables (Moore & Woodrow, 2010).
Skills and attributes for intercultural negotiation
            There are various skills and strategies that a manager needs to use when dealing with a cross-cultural negotiation. First, the ability to identify the problem whereby the people involved are separated from the problem. Secondly, ability to identify the interests of the parties instead of focusing on positions. For instance each party might have strong belief that they hold about some issue and therefore it is important that the negotiator focuses on basic interests that bring mutual solutions rather than forcing the parties to cede their positions (Mead, 2005).
Thirdly, there is attitude shift which creates changed expectations, ways of communication and relationship norms. As a result the other party to the negotiation is viewed no longer viewed as an adversary but rather the problem at hand becomes the enemy. There should also be an attitude shift concerning the stakes of a negotiation, whereby parties re-evaluate their interests resources they have in manner that permits trade-offs (Spangle & Isenhar, 2003). Fourthly, the manager must seek to establish how cultural differences of the two parties affect the process of negotiation. Some of the issues to consider include timing, values of the parties, perceptions on relationships and lastly communication (Moore & Woodrow, 2010).
Lastly, is trust where the manager must win the trust of the disputing parties because he will be working to make them climb down from their positions and therefore they must believe that he is sincere and does not have other selfish interests.
Importance of cultural differences in determining dispute tolerance
The level of tolerance of disputes differ across cultures particularly because disagreement that might be consider as normal or small in a given society might as well be consider as a severe conflict in another society. This depends on values that each place on the issues at stake as defined by their culture. Therefore if one culture regards a given issue highly it will cause a serious conflict when situations around it change (Mead, 2005). For example in masculine societies, money and things are regarded highly while in feminine societies people and environment are important (Gooderham & Nordhaug, 2003).

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