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Embedded Systems Design and Development

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5ET003 Assignment 2
Department of Engineering
Module Title: Professional Engineering and the Micro-electronics
Module Code: 5ET003
Component Number:   2 of 2 Element Number: 1 of 1
Element Title
Embedded Systems Design and Development:
Design and development of an embedded control
system for a 4-axis CNC Drillingmachine.
Weighting: 50%
Learning Outcomes to be assessed:
Marking Criteria:
Written reports produced using IT skills.
In order to achieve a D5 (minimum pass grade) students are expected to
produce an individual report of approximately 1500 words, showing a basic
understanding of the subject area using standard available material. The
reports are to be produced electronically using relevant illustrations, where
In order to achieve A16 (highest pass grade) students must produce an
individual report that demonstrates extensive well researched knowledge of
the subject area, expressing competent personal opinions and arguments.
The report must be electronically produced, well-illustrated, adequately
referenced and set out with good use of relevant illustrations.
The minimum pass mark for this component is D5.
Assignment Issued: 24
November 2014
Latest date for submission: 12
January 2015
Assignments submitted after the deadline, and without an authorised extension, will be
graded F0.
Please mark your assignment for the attention of: Dr A Zakeri
You should make it very clear what sources of information have been used; where material/information from these
sources is quoted, it must be clearly referenced using the Harvard Referencing System. (Details can be obtained from
Learning Centre pages on the University website).
The assignment must be handed in at the Telford student access point.
A signed receipt must be obtained when the assignment is submitted. You should keep your receipt in a safe place.
You are required to keep your own electronic and/or hard-copy of any work submitted.
5ET003 Assignment 2
Department of Engineering
Module: 5ET003 Professional Engineering and the Microelectronics
Assignment 2: Microelectronics
Assignment brief:
Embedded Systems Design and Development:- Design and development of an
embedded control system for a 4-axis CNC Drilling machine.
Use PIC16f88 microcontroller to develop an embedded control system for a 4-axis CNC
machine carrying out drilling operations on aerospace parts. The manufacture of military
aircraft entails rigid demands on the dimensional accuracy of the component parts. One of the
demands is a complete inter-changeability of parts without any modification of the pattern of
drilled holes. This demand is met by the use of programmable machines. In most cases where a
robot is used within aircraft manufacturing it is programmed to handle and position sheet metal
parts to make possible further operations using another machine. In this case the CNC machine
will be used for performing the machining (drilling) operation. The concept of a CNC drilling
machine is to be realised by development of an embedded 4-axis motion control system for this
machine that makes use of PIC16F88 microcontroller. The structure of the propose CNC drilling
machine control system is shown in Figure1.The work to be drilled and its drill template is
shown in Figure 2
Figure1 Proposed CNC drilling machine control system.
Stepper motor 3
5ET003 Assignment 2
Figure2. Drill template with sheet metal panel
The embedded system shown in Figure1 uses four stepper motors as actuation
devices. Two Stepper motors are used for positioning of the worktable, one stepper
motor will be used for position of workhead (drilling tool) and one stepper
motor will be used for the process of drilling.
Figure 3 shows worktable movement achieve through rotation of Leadscrew by
stepper motor. Worktable bring the work under the drill head through moving in
X-axis and Y-axis or simultaneously in both X and Y directions.
Figure 3 Worktable movement achieve through rotation of Leadscrew by
stepper motor
5ET003 Assignment 2
Figure 4- Mechanism for movement of workhead
Figure 4 Stepper motor 3 will move the workhead to up and down in Z direction
Stepper motor 4 rotates the drill for carrying out the drilling operation
Figure 5 below shows overall structure of 4-axis CNC control system (schematic of
the movement of workhead by Stepper motor 3 is presented for visualisation of
mechanism as well as stepper motor interfacing)
Figure 5 overall structure of embedded 4-axis CNC control system
Stepper motor 3
Stepper motor 4
rotating the drill
5ET003 Assignment 2
Students are required to elaborate on the concept of CNC control of drilling operation
and discuss the design and development of hardware and software required for the
realisation of a 4-axis motion control system for the proposed CNC machine. A written
report of 3000 (fully referenced) required, the report should include in the following:
1- Design outline- More elaborate description of the embedded system to be developed
and the purpose of its design and literature review. This section should in particular
describe the
– Hardware and software requirement for position and speed control of worktable
– Hardware and software requirement for position and speed control of workhead
– Hardware and software requirement for control of workhead (drill) operation.
2- Detailed analysis of the proposed system illustrating a generalised blockdiagram of the system and highlighting important features /considerations
3- The interfacing of the hardware components to microcontroller (interfaces).
4- Software design:- Flowchart and list of the codes being developed
5- Potential implementation issues (any consideration that would affect development and
operation of the system
6- Summary and Discussion.
Solution instruction (Guidelines)
Stepping motors are normally used for small robots with low speed and torque
requirements. When used for such applications, they have the advantage that they can
be operated in open loop mode thereby eliminating the need for interfacing rather
expensive feedback transducers.
D.C. motors and stepping motors are used for providing rotary motion in robots. Both of
these motors are however, unsuitable for directly producing a linear motion. Rotary
motion can be translated into linear motion using rack and pinion drives. An alternative
possibility involves the use of a lead screw type device whose speed is rather limited.
The prospective embedded system will position the worktable under the workhead and
moves the workhead in Z direction by first approaching the work in high speed and then
moving the workhead (dril) slowly into the work to create holes, and then retrieve the
work upward and moving the worktable to a length that allows next hole to be produced
in the work. Through consideration of lead-screw’s pitch students should calculate the
number of pulses required sending to stepper motors for achieving a particular distance
travel, and through the change in frequency of pulse train students should be able to
achieve various travel speeds. The use of sensors for any end- stop location detection
and for stroke length determination can also be considered.
This assignment requires students to interface a keypad and four stepper motors to a
PIC16f88-based microcontroller board and develop appropriate programs (codes) for
5ET003 Assignment 2
the microcontroller so that it can scan the keypad and actuate (run) particular stepper
motor when particular key on the keypad is pressed. LCDs can also be Interfaced to the
microcontroller to display sensory information and or number of holes produced.
Marking criteria:
You are required to investigate and design all the interfacing and the codes required for
the development of the proposed embedded system for control of the CNC drilling
machine. You should submit an individual report of 3000 words length (fully
referenced), including in your report the following:
Headings (Tasks / Requirements) Marks
1 Description of the proposed embedded system and the purpose of its
design and literature review.
2 Detailed analysis of the proposed embedded system illustrating a generalised
block diagram of the system and highlighting important features /considerations
including the sensors and actuators required for effective monitoring and
supervisory control of CNC drilling operation.
3 Hardware specification (how the hardware components connect together and to
the microcontroller ( interface). This in particular requires discussion and
explanation of
3.1 interfacing of sensors and actuators (motors) to the microcontroller- how
many sensors and actuators used
3.2- interfacing of the microcontroller to LCD for the display of
sensory data/information/feedback.
3.3- interfacing of microcontroller to a Keypad for the issuing of the command
signals to the microcontroller to maintain optimum position for worktable and
workhead etc,
include in this section the code required for the acquisition of data from sensors
and their storage into the outstation microcontroller
4 Software design:- Flowchart and list of the code
This should include Flowchart and list of codes for individual tasks as well as code
for overall continuous operation of the embedded system using sensory feedback
and actuation signals. Include in this section the following particular codes:
4.1- the code required for the positioning of woktable
4.2- code for receiving keypad command signals into the microcontroller to
maintain an optimum position of workhead and worktable and the actual
drilling operation.
4.3 Code for transmission of sensory data to an LCD display.
4.4 overall code continuous operation of the embedded system illustrating
Use of appropriate LOOPS for the effective execution of the overall tasks of a
CNC drilling machine 40%
5 Summary and Discussion including recommendation of potential improvement of
the system.

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