WE WRITE CUSTOM ACADEMIC PAPERS

100% Original, Plagiarism Free, Tailored to your instructions

Order Now!

Emerging Technology in Criminal Justice

Paper Outline

Introduction
Advantages of Emerging Technologies on Criminal Justice

III. Disadvantages of Emerging Technologies on Criminal Justice

Case where the use of the computer was beneficial to the prosecution in a criminal case.
Case where the computer was used to aid in the commission of a crime.
Conclusion.

 

Emerging Technologies on Criminal Justice
Introduction
According to OTA (1989), up to 1960’s criminal justice institutions were left behind in adopting new technologies. However, in the two decades that followed, there was a transformation in every component of the criminal justice system. Technology has been used to detect and prevent crime, for instance in forensic accounting, forensic engineering, DNA analysis and tool mark identification techniques in cases involving firearms. Since the time investigators embraced technology, scientific evidence has gained ground in courtrooms and seems to be providing strong evidence (OTA, 1989).
Advantages of Emerging Technologies on Criminal Justice
Technology in criminal investigation has come with several advantages which include: identification of terrorist suspect remains from victims’ using DNA-based genetic profiling. Secondly, comparing crime scene DNA to known samples obtained from victims or suspects which can be instrumental in the resolution of felony crimes (Lazer, 1989). Therefore with no witnesses alive, suspects can still be traced. In the case of sexual offenders where victims are either dead or cannot speak due to trauma, hormonal therapy can be carried out to provide supplementary evidence (Lazer, 1989). In addition, police have been able to monitor crime trends and hence predict future crime incidents. This is possible through technology by using a technique known as spatial mapping. For instance, in October 2002, law enforcement agencies were able to predict a sniper’s next target. On some cases forensic Engineering can be used in a tragedy scene such as building collapses or explosions to establish whether it happened accidentally or was planned (Robert, 2004). Lastly, criminal justice agencies are able to collect large amounts of information in their databases which enable them to share data and they have also created websites through which they issue crime alerts to the public and provide an avenue through which the public can share crime information.
Disadvantages of Emerging Technologies on Criminal Justice
On the other hand, technology in criminal investigation has its own share of disadvantages. First there is intrusion into people’s privacy. For instance some of the scanners used to check illegal items can penetrate through clothes and expose someone’s nakedness. In addition, the surveillance cameras can impinge on ones privacy in that they can access any room including private rooms like toilets and lodgings. Secondly; it is hard to determine the admissibility of scientific evidence into a courtroom. This is because there is no clear standard, to determine which evidence can be accepted into the courtroom and which one cannot (Bradley, 2004). This is a major challenge to investigators because at times a suspect can challenge the validity of there scientific evidence and hence defeat the prosecution. One other disadvantage of technology is that computer hackers can accidentally or intentionally access electronic data. Worse still someone can send a virus to the storage and destroy the files (Bradley, 2004).
Case where the use of the computer was beneficial to the prosecution in a criminal case.
A case in point where a computer was beneficial in the prosecution of a criminal case is explained by Gibbons where a 48-year-old woman, Miriam Slamovic, encountered a burglar in the bedroom of her San Francisco home on February 20, 1978. The intruder panicked and shot her in the face and hence she died after one month. The crime investigators had no leads of the suspect except fingerprints left on the windowsill and bedroom window of Mrs. Slamovic home. In 1984, the city of San Francisco installed a new Integrated Fingerprint Identification System. The investigators tested the latent prints of Mrs. Slamovic’s killer, and once fed into the computer a match was found. The crime scene print matched those of Leoncio Saulney, a young computer operator who had once been arrested and booked on a minor trespassing charge. When confronted with the fingerprint evidence he confessed to the crime and pled guilty to first degree of murder (U.S Congress, Office of Technology Assessment ,1988).
Case where the computer was used to aid in the commission of a crime.
On January 9, 1996 U.S secret service agents arrested three suspects with ties to South America, for alleged cellular fraud. At least 10 cloned cellular phones that they had used over a six-week period to place hundreds of thousands of dollars worth of illegal long distance calls to countries throughout the world were confiscated. Cloning fraud involves the practice of programming stolen cellular phone numbers and electronic serial numbers into other cellular handsets, thus creating a “clone” of the original cellular phone. Once a phone has been cloned, the cellular bandit is then free to place unlimited calls which are billed to the original account (All Business, 1999).
Conclusion.
Technology has greatly enhanced criminal investigation, whereby tests can be done on crime scene samples acquired many years ago and still find required results, evidence can still be obtained where no witness exists through DNA tests and databases can be used to store and share large amounts of information among Criminal Justice Agencies. On the other hand, technology has its dark side in crime investigation. This involves the aspect of social cost. For instance, gross violation of human privacy In spite of these underlying disadvantages, technology is a major boost to law enforcement agencies. However, much caution should be taken while using technology to avoid excessive violation of human rights such as control of ones behavior using machines.


Instant Quote

Subject:
Type:
Pages/Words:
Single spaced
approx 275 words per page
Urgency (Less urgent, less costly):
Level:
Currency:
Total Cost: NaN

Get 10% Off on your 1st order!