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Factors Hindering Youth Entrepreneurship

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BUS007                                                 2014/15 Research          Methodology
Guidance           for        assessments      and       marking            frameworks
BUS007Research           Methodology      is          assessed           via        a          research            presentation      (20%)  and            a          research
project  report   (80%).  In         this       document          you       can       find       marking            frameworks anddetails   on            how
to         get        started  with      different            types    of         projectsand       data      sources. Furtherdiscussions            about    the
two       assessments      will       take      place     on         the        module’s           QMPLuspage.    Please   follow    discussions            and
contribute          accordingly.
To        receive feedback          about your        ideas    from    the       module organiser,         please  visit     the       weekly
office    hours    or         other     dedicated          slots      that       will       be         announced.        You       will       also      have            opportunities
during   seminars           closer    to         the        end       of         the        term.
Assessment       1:         Research           presentation      (20%)
For       the research     presentation,    you      need to            identify a         relevant           topic    in         Business            and
Management      research            and       then      developa          plan      for        data      collection           and       analysis.            You       should   be
able      to        justify  your     selection           of        methodology     and      discuss potential           alternatives. The
presentation      will       serve    as         the       main     source   of         feedback          in          preparation        for       the            project  report
(assessment      2).       Your    ideas    can      change after     the       presentation based        on        the       feedback            and
availability         of         data      sources.
Presentations     will       be         assessed           based    on         the        following           three     criteria:
• Introduction    to        a         research           topic     (40       marks):            what     is         the       motivation        for            your     study?
Have     you identified    one      or        more    research           questions          of        interest?           What    is         the            core
literature           related  to         your      topic?
• Plan    to        implementation (30 marks):       how     do        you      plan     to        address            your     research
question(s)?       What     data     sources            have    you       considered?      How      do        you       plan     to        carry     out
the        analysis?           Any       specific  challenges         that       you       are       expecting           to         face?
• Presentation    style    and      response          to        questions (30    marks):            your     presentation     should
flow      well      with      appropriate        visual    aids      (slides   or         equivalent).       You       should   be         able      to            give
informative        answers            to         any       follow-up           questions           about    the        material            presented.            BUS007guidance           for        assessments Page          2 of       5
The       presentations     will       be         scheduled          to         take      place     during   weeks   10-12    of         the        term            and       most of
them     should   be         expected           during   week    11.        Presentations     will       be         individually        assessed            although
you       will      have    the       option  to        present            in         groups of        two      and      work    collaboratively   at        the       initial
stages   of         your      project.
Presentations     will lastapproximately    10         minutes plus      a          few       minutesfor        any       questions. If      you
work     in          pairs, you          will       be         allocated           a          double   slot       and       are       expected           to            share time equally.
Assessment       2:         Research           project  report   (80%)
In         this      independent      research           project,            you      will      need    to        implement        the plan            presented         in
assessment       1          with      any       necessary          changes            in          response           to         feedback.
Reportsare       individual           and       should   be         up         to         2,500 words      excluding the     reference          list            and       any
tables    or         figures.
The       deadline            for        submission        is          Thursday           18/12/2014 at    23.55pm.
Secondary         sourcesof         data      should   be         sufficient           for       this      project.In         case      you            decide   to        collect
primary data     (e.g.    survey,            interviews),      you      will need          to        fill        in         a         short    application         for       ethical
approval (see    lecture 5         on        research           ethics). You      cannot  collect  data     that      involve human
participants        without  ethical   approval.
Project  reports  will       be         assessed           based    on         the        following           criteria:
• Introduction,   literature           and       topic    selection (30     marks): what    was      the       motivation         for
your      study? Have      you       identified           one       or         more     research            questions           of         interest?            How      are
they      related to          previous            work     in          the        area?
• Methodology   and data           sources (20      marks):            what    is         your     method?           Why     is         it            an
appropriate        one       for       your      research           question(s)?       How      was      data collection    and       analysis
carried  out?      What     are       the        limitations          of         your      work?
• Analysis,         discussion         of        findings            and      conclusion (30   marks): what    are      the       findings            of
your      study?   Based   on         the        findings,            what     is          the        answer  to         your      question (s)?      Any            other
important          conclusions        or         issues   for        further  work?
• Presentation, writing    and       referencing        style (20            marks): is         there    a          good     flow     from    the
introduction       to        the       methodology     and      interpretation    of        findings?           Is        the       writing style
appropriate        without spelling,           grammar          or        syntax  mistakes? Is     the       referencing       style
appropriate        and       consistent?
The       above   are       also      an         indicative           structure           that       you       can       follow for           writing  the            essay.   Make    sure
that your           essay    has       good     balancebetween            sections(e.g.     literature review            cannot   be         half            the
essay!). Literature         and      presentation     of        findings            are      likely    to        require more    space   than
methodology      and       conclusions.       The       introduction       can       be         brief      but        informative.BUS007            guidance           for        assessments Page          3 of       5
Remember: when          preparing          your      submission,       the        usual     regulations        apply    as         described            in          the
Undergraduate   StudentHandbook          2014-15.
The       rest      of        this      document         provides guidance         on        different           methodologies  and      examples           of
topics    as         a          basis     for       this       project.In         additionto         these,   you       are       welcome           to            identify  your      own
perspective        and       choice   of         methods            with      the        supportof         the        module  organiser.
Getting  started
The       first       decisionthat       you       need     to         make    is          whether            your      project  will       be            based    on         quantitative
or         qualitative        research.           This     decision            should  be        based   entirely            on        your     interests,           nature  of
selected            topic    and      willingness        to        further develop            your     skills.   The      marking           framework        is
common            for        both      types    of         projects.            A mixedmethods            project  could     potentially be feasiblebut
given    the       space   limitation,         you      not       advised            to        pursue this      option. In        case you            do,       please
contact  the        module  organiser in       advance.
Scope    of         the project:      any       area      within    Business            and       Management      or         Social    Science research.
Other    areas   are      also     possible            as        long     as        the       methodology     remains            within   the            scope   of        the
methodologies taught throughoutthe        module.
Quantitative       research
For       a         quantitative      research           project,            you      need    to        identify an        appropriate       dataset. There   are
three     main     types    of         data      sources:
• Official            statistics,           public    surveys,            open     government       data and other   secondary         sources(see
Business            Research           Methods            chapter12). You            might need        to         combine            more     than            one       data

The       following           are       indicative           ones:

o UK     Data     Archivefor        Social    Scienceand       Humanities
o European        Commission       Social    ScienceData     Archives
http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/links_en.htm   – Social  ScienceData     Archives and
o European        Social    Survey  http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org/data/
o WorldBank     repository          of         data      http://data.worldbank.org/indicator
o United            Nations repository          of         data      http://data.un.org
o International   Monetary           Fund     (IMF)    data      and       statistics
o Open  government       data,     e.g. http://data.gov.uk or           http://data.police.uk/BUS007      guidance           for            assessments Page          4 of       5
• Content           analysis            to        quantify media, websites           or        other    data     sources (see     Business
Research           Methods           chapter            12). An example           of        a         paper   using    a         web     content  analysis
methodology will            be         available           on         QMPlus.
• Survey            research           to        collect  your     own     data.    In        this      case     you      will      need    ethical   approval.
Please   consult the       module organiser          for       assistance        in         designing          your     survey. If         it            is         an
online    one,     you      can      use      the       School’s            online    survey platform           via       Qualtrics (see            QMPLus
week    5 for     the        links).
For       any      type     of        quantitative      project,            your     observations     must     not       be        time-dependent         in         the
form     of         a          time     series   or         panel    data that require            different            methods            of            analyses. You    can       use
SPSS,    MS        Excel     or         any other          software            for        as         long      as         choices  are       documented            in          the report.
Examples           of         topics    could     include  the        following:
• Determinants  of        birth     rate on a         global   scale.   Potential           independent      variables          could
include: infant   mortality           rate,     percentage        of        urban   population,       Gross    Domestic          Product
per       capita    and       female  unemployment. Unit       of         analysis:           country.
• Factors           that       affect    povertyindicators          in          the        UK        local      government.      Potential            independent
variables           could     include:unemployment   rate, age           distribution        of         the        population         or         size            of
the        population. Unit  of         analysis:           UK        council.
• Attitudes         of        Europeans        towards            job       satisfaction       using    different           factors recorded            in         the
European           Social    Survey  available           at         http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org/data/. Unitof
analysis:           individuals         (European         citizens).
Suggested         requirements     for        a          quantitative       project:
• Dataset           with      at         least     30-40    observations.
• Hypothesis      development      and       testing;2- 4      hypotheses        are       recommended.
• Projects          should  include at         least    descriptive        statistics           and      bivariate           analysis. You    do            not
need     to         report   on         all         possibledescriptives       and       bivariate            measures          (e.g.     correlations).
• Statistical        conclusion        using    an        appropriate       significance       test      (e.g.    t-test    for regression
coefficients)       and       interpretation.
• More  advanced          projectsare       expected           to         use       of         multipleregression.
• You    can       export   SPSS     tables    and       figures  for        your      report.  They     are       excluded            from     the            word
count (up           to         2,500    words).
• You    will       not        be         asked    to         submit   your      dataset  or         analysis files     but        they      need tobe            made
available           to         the        module  organiser           upon     requestuntil      you       complete           the            module.BUS007guidance           for        assessments Page          5 of       5
Qualitative         research
A          qualitative research       project does    not       aim      at        statistical          validity and      generalisability  but            is
equally  rigorous            and       needs    to         satisfy   its         own      requirements.    It          is          expected           that            for        a          qualitative
project  you       need     to         invest    more     effort    in          writing  up         and       identifying         an         appropriate            theoretical
perspective        to         supportyour      arguments. Possible       methods            for        a          qualitative         project            include:
• Qualitative      interviews         (Business          Research           Methods            chapter18):      interviews         can            providea
rich       source   of         data      for        a          qualitative         project.For       the        scope    of         this       essay    and            depending         on
your      topic,    about    2-4 interviews can          be         sufficient. If       you       have     the        opportunity        to            conduct
group    interviews,        you      might    want     to        read      more     about    focus     groups (Business            Research
Methods            chapter19).
• Ethnography    or         observation       (Business          Research           Methods            chapter17):      this       form     of            project
can       lead      to        interesting         insightsbut        might    be         difficult  to        organise            in          short     timeframes.       If
you       have     an         idea      for        an         ethnographic      project,please   consult the         module  organiser.
• Documentary  analysis (Business         Research          Methods           chapter            17):     you      can      complete            a
qualitative         project  using     only      secondary         sources.            A qualitative      content  analysis approach
will       be        sufficient          (e.g.    instead of        semiotics          or        hermeneutics    as        explained          in            Business
Research           Methods            chapter17).
• Case   study research:  a          case      study    can       use       several  sourcesof         qualitative         data      using     one            or
more     cases    as         the       unit       of         analysis.            Material from    the       forthcoming      lecture  on         case            study
research            will       be         made    available           in          advance.           For       an         introduction, see            p.59            from Business
Research           Methods            chapter2.
Suggested         requirements     for        a          qualitative project:
• An      extended          literature          review is         not       acceptable        on        its        own.    It         should  at            least    be
supported          by         an         illustrative         case study.
• Regardless      of         your      choice   of         method,            you       need     to         list        your      documentary            sourcesand       fully
reference          the        core ones.
• If       you       use       NVivo    or         other     research            software            for        analysis, do       not        forget    to            document          it          in
your      methodology      section.
• Qualitative      studies  generally           need     more     space    than      quantitative       ones     and       a          wider            source
of         references.        References        are       excluded            from    the        word     count.   For       secondary            thoughts            or
evidence,          you       can       add       an         appendix           of         reasonable        length   to         your      report.
• You    might    need     to         use       quantitative       data      as         secondary         sources to         supportyour            arguments.
This      does     not        qualify   as         a          quantitative       project.
• You    will       not        be         asked    to        submit   your      sources or (any)            analysis files     but        they     need to         be
made    available           to         the        module  organiser           upon     requestuntil      you       complete           the            module.
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