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What is ethics?
Describe the ethical theories presented in chapter 16.

How the principle of justice affects the decision-making process

Ethical dilemmas involved in the allocation of scarce resources
How should an ethics committee be structured?
Functions of an ethics committee

What is ethics?
Ethics describe a form of system containing moral principles that guide peoples’ decisions and interactions. It is concerned with categorizing what is right and wrong. Hence it helps us pursue categorized moral values. It is the basis upon which individuals decide a follow a give courses in life. This involves identification of a good course of action to be followed in practice by any medical practitioner. The primary goal of medical practitioners is to save lives. Medical practices are designed with an aim of promoting wellness. These ethical standards are designed so as to avoid harming the patient (Pojman 1).
Describe the ethical theories presented in chapter 16
Normative ethics are some of the theories that explain ethical aspects. In this case, the major concern is the establishment of norms or standards that guide the conduct about how one should live. Furthermore, it is concerned with the question about judging human action based on the consequences. Consequential theory is based on the premise that actions that are morally right are those that maximizes the good against evil. Therefore, the consequences determine the rightness or wrongness of an act. Utilitarian ethics are concerned with how contribution of an action to the overall usefulness determines its moral worth. As a consequentialist ethical theory, it emphasizes on how the outcome of an action determines its moral worth (Pozgar 4-6).
In explaining deontological ethics, deontologists mention that, although the outcome of an action may be right and good, they may fail to increase the right and good thing sought in acting (Pozgar, 7). It emphasizes on the duty of a person and the right of others. It is about keeping the promise and being truthful. Most consequentialists are not against the idea that the outcomes of rules are the only determinant of the morality of the rule or an action. They argue that intrinsic properties of the act are the determinant of wrongness or rightness of an action.
How the principle of justice affects the decision-making process
Justice is concerned with being fair in distributing risks and benefits. Equal treatment is required for people in the same circumstances. It is said to be legitimate if one gets what he/she deserves. This is manifested in the treatment received by one among competing interests. This principle enables one to make a balanced decision based on fair treatment of all people. When one is faced with competing decisions, one will use this principle to ensure that he or she makes the best priority (Pozgar, 30).
Ethical dilemmas involved in the allocation of scarce resources
Resource allocation is the greatest test of justice. The main issues of controversy are inequality and equity of distribution. In this case, governments face many competing needs. In this case, it becomes hard to make a just decision. Balancing between basic needs and development agenda is the greatest dilemma for resource allocation based on the principle of justice (Pozgar 31-35).
How should an ethics committee be structured?
Pozgar (71) explained the role of the ethics committee in addressing ethical-legal issues that may result from patient’s treatment and care. Such a committee should encompass a varied number of political leaders from the community. It should include people from different disciplines including business people, managers, quality improvement, clergy members, political leaders, legal advisors, clinicians, educators and ethicists.
Functions of an ethics committee
The functions of the ethics committee include policy development and making of procedural guidelines that help in resolving ethical dilemmas. Others include political advocacy, consultation, support, care review, conflict resolution, and community and staff education (Pozgar 75).

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