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Information Technology

Information Technology
Journal report should be on topics related to information technology such as cloud computing.. etc.
Journal Reports (JR): Each student will submit five journal reports on the topics of information systems planning and policy.  The report will be two pages in length with five parts and will use the following format: I. Bibliographic Entry, II. Summary, III. Impact/Opinion, IV. Key Words, V. Name, Date, CTR Number and Class.  Grading is based on content, clarity, quality of article and the writing in general (spelling, grammar, etc).  One copy of the report is due each time and one copy posted to your folder on Blackboard. Use a file name structure of your last name and JR#  then the number of the article.  The name of your file should be your last name and JR number and date.
I.Bibliography: Winn, K Jane. “Regulating Electronic Communications with Government: Improving
the Architecture or Impeding the Dialog.”Shidler Center for Law, Commerce and Technology
According to the Government Paperwork Elimination Act, or GPEA, the United States now requires all federal agencies to establish policies to develop their citizens to use electronic media when interacting with the government.  This new policy in the use of electronic records and signatures can be analyzed at two levels: Will it help the government, yet, not impose on the public? Will it contribute to the overall security of a network security system in the United States? The journal begins with the statement that the United States government is having a difficult time developing and implementing a useful approach to the use of electronic media in communications between government agencies and the public. United States agencies are required to establish systems to relieve both electronic records and signatures. The first agency to develop a coherent approach was the FDA. Their strict standards corresponded well with the “culture of bureaucratic intelligence.” Congress passed the E-Government Act of 2002, which requires agencies to develop a way to keep the obstacles of agencies away from the obstacles of new technology. This is due to the compliance of the Government Paperwork Elimination Act, which is requested by entities that may increase demand for more secure IT systems.
This law seeks to “preclude agencies or courts from systematically treating electronic documents and signatures less favorably than their paper counterparts. This way citizens can deal with the federal government electronically. This policy requires OMB, working with the NITA, and developing electronic procedures. GPEA sets requirements: “(A) they shall be compatible with standards and technology for electronic signatures that aregenerally used in commerce and industry and by State governments;(B) they may not inappropriately favor one industry or technology;(C) they shall ensure that electronic signatures are as reliable as is appropriate for the purpose in question and keep intact the information submitted;(D) they shall provide for the electronic acknowledgment of electronic forms that are successfully submitted; and (E) they shall, to the extent feasible and appropriate, require an
Executive agency that anticipates receipt by electronic means of 50,000 or more submittals of a particular form to take all steps necessary to ensure that multiple methods of electronic signatures
are available for the submittal of such form .”
The FDA has been led in the United States regulation of software because it ensures the safety of U.S. medical patients receiving treatments using medical devices. The Environmental Protection Agency has begun regulating the software, and is in the process of finalizing the Cross Media Electronic Reporting and Recording Keeping Rule.  This will govern electronic reporting and keep policies associated with CDX. CROMERRR is performed to make electronic reporting as simple as possible and cost effective, while ensuring that a transition from paper to electronic reporting does not “compromise EPA’s compliance and enforcement programs.”  Section 3.100 of CROMERRR provides that an acceptable electronic record retention system must: “(1) Generate and maintain accurate and complete electronic records and electronic documents in a form that may not be altered without detection;(2) Maintain all electronic records and electronic documents without alteration for the entirety of the required period of record retention;(3) Produce accurate and complete copies of any electronic record or electronic document and render these copies readily available, in both human readable and electronic form, for on-site inspectionand off-site review, for the entirety of the required period of record retention;(4) Provide that any electronic record or electronic document bearing an electronic signature contain the name of the signatory, the date and time of signature, and any information that explains the meaning of the affixed signature; (5) Prevent an electronic signature that has been affixed to an electronic record or electronic document from being detached, copied, or otherwise compromised; (6) Use secure, computer-generated, time-stamped audit trails that automatically record the date and time of operator entries and actions that create, modify, or delete electronic records or documents; (7) Ensure that record changes do not obscure previously recorded information and that audit trail documentation is retained for a period at least as long as that required for the subject electronic records or electronic documents to be available for agency review; (8) Ensure that electronic records and electronic documents aresearchable and retrievable for reference and secondary uses,including inspections, audits, legal proceedings, third party disclosures, as required by applicable regulations, for the entirety.” Critics of CROMERRR have stated that EPA has omitted the risk analysis mandated by GPEA and simply imposed standards for management that correlates to that policy governed by the FDA. The E-Government Act of 2002 creates a new position within the OMB for administration of the Office of Electronic Government and also calls millions of dollars to improve information technology. The EGA does not “mandate the content of any electronic signatures or electronic record management policies established by federal agencies.” How should federal agencies regulate electronic communications? The E-Government Act of 2002 pushes these agencies toward more regularity in their development of GPEA guidelines. In conclusion, the journal adds there is no question that regulations of the FDA and EPA will impose burdens on constituents that use electronic media when speaking to agencies.
I believe that the simplicity of the journal makes the topic greater than what it is. This is done to increase the level of security while hindering rather than enabling electronic communications with government agencies. Basically, agencies requiring regulated entities to “investigate insecure communications and record systems may be appropriate in light of the risk to the public associated with the communication in question, which in both cases addresses public health issues.” I believe with this type of relationship absent, the compliance with the FDA and CROMERRR will actually raise cost without delivering any public benefits. Why do this in the first place? The changing technology inevitably affects the way business is done and how we choose to communicate. Of course, when we think of technology and the affects it has on media and social institutions it is actually profound. This is why most professors do not allow their students to use a laptop in the classroom. It actually disrupts the learning process and gives way for many things to occur. Yet, where are we to escape it? The use of technology is staggering and is efficient when getting a point across. The problems when using electronic media with the government is that ideas and words can often be manipulated. Freedom of Press does of course exist, but, it must be used responsibly.  Sometimes this freedom can interfere with how politics are run primarily because reporters are so interested in coming up with a good story, even if this means manipulating the truth, A LOT. The public should not be given access to every detail that the government engages in. This information is classified and is secret for a reason. Sometimes ignorance is bliss, and we should not be involved in what the government is up to. We need to view this system as more of a parent figure, and we their children. Parents do not tell their children everything, unless, it is direly important-Correct? Yes. Not only would that be a mistake, but the public would not know how to handle any potential news. The government withholds information to protect national interest and does it quite effectively, I might add. I responded to this quote quite well when I initially read it. “A bureaucracy is sure to think that its duty is to augment official power, official business, or official member, rather than to leave free the energies of mankind.” Basically, we want people to be free and feel free, but to an extent. If people were let loose to do what they wanted, our world would be exposed to havoc and chaos. I say this only because when people are given too much power, they do not know how to handle or use it effectively most of the time.
IV. Key Words:
Regulating, electronic commerce, architecture, dialog, digital signatures, public key infrastructure, record management, embedded software
V. Name, Date, Journal #?, INFO 490

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