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Job Analysis, Job Description and Job specification for a Hotel Manager

 
Management 3616
Job Analysis of Hotel Manager
2/15/2012
 
Job Analysis, Job Description and Job specification for a Hotel Manager
 
Choice of Job to Study and Reasons Underlying Selection
I chose to study the job of a hotel manager in Hotel. Last summer, I worked in this restaurant and I often wondered whether the responsibilities of the manager were well defined. For instance, the manager would sometimes join us, serving tables and I wondered if this was a responsibility for the manager. This was the reason for choosing this job, to understand the responsibilities of the hotel manager and job specifications.
The manager is in charge of a mid-sized hotel overseeing the daily operations. He is in charge of individual staff and teams. Teams include; sales, catering, accommodation, laundry. The hotel has an accountant, cashier, and receptionists.
The methods and their application – interviews, prior information, task questionnaires
The US Office of Personnel Management (OPM) job analysis method was used. Under this method, the approach mainly involved identification of critical tasks and competencies. An initial research was conducted in websites, newspapers, and magazines regarding requirements and responsibilities of a hotel manager. Then, to collect specific information on the position, an interview with the incumbent (considered as a subject matter expert (SME)) was conducted. Interviews were used where open-ended task questionnaires were used, on a one-on-one basis with the respondent (see appendices 1 for questionnaire used). The nature and importance of the interview was explained to them, highlighting that it was meant to obtain information on their jobs by evaluating the position’s duties, tasks, responsibilities and necessary skills. Particular emphasis was exerted in explaining that the focus was not on the individual performance, rather on the job requirements.
The sources used – job analyst, job incumbent, supervisor, subject matter experts, combination of these. How were they used?
The source was the incumbent general hotel manager who is considered a subject matter expert (SME). He has worked as the general manager for the restaurant for the last three years, with the first year having worked as an assistant manager before he was promoted to the current position. He holds a bachelor’s degree in commerce, accounting option and a master’s degree in business administration. The first questionnaire aimed to indentify attributes of the specific job position. Structured formats of questionnaires were used while assisting the respondent on concepts that he did not understand. Attention was taken to ensure that each of all necessary aspects of each responsibility was captured. The results mainly comprising of the tasks and competencies were harmonized with the attributes already identified in the prior independent research. In a second interview, the SME was requested to rate the tasks and competencies. He was required to rate tasks individually based on importance and frequency. Competencies were rated on scales of importance, need at entry, and distinguishing value.
The Process Used – Gathering, Synthesizing, and Reporting Information
An initial background research through the Internet was carried out with an aim of familiarizing with the nature of work hotel managers do, their skills and requirements (Sources mostly composed of websites; Prospects, Best Job Descriptions, Association of College Unions International, Gaikwad). Information gathering was through a face-to-face interview. A telephone conversation was made to the hotel manager requesting for an interview at a convenient time. The interview was held in his restaurant with the first interview lasting for about 30 minutes whereas the second one lasted for an hour. The first interview that aimed at identifying specific attributes of the position, a voice recorder to record the conversations. Questionnaire responses were analyzed from both the written responses and voice-recorded transcripts. The second interview applied the US Office of Personnel Management (OPM) job analysis approach. In this case, the SME was requested to rate the tasks and competencies. He was required to rate tasks individually based on importance and frequency (Table 1 below). Tasks that rated less than 2 or less on both importance and frequency were considered not critical and therefore dropped from the list.
Table 1: Job Analysis Worksheet for Tasks

 
Source
Importance
Frequency

 
SME
How important is this task to the job?
How often is this task performed?

Contacts others orally to obtain information

SME
5
4

Understands non-technical materials (e.g., letters, memoranda, electronic mail, simple instructions.

SME
5
4

Correctly applies laws to specific issues.

SME
4
2

Makes plans and organizes operations for instance catering and accommodation

SME
4
3

Recruits, trains, and manages staff (Prospects 1).

SME
4
1

Ensures compliance with various rules and regulations such as health and safety and licenses

SME
3
2

Offers support, mentoring and counseling to staff members

SME
3
2

Handles suppliers and contractors

SME
4
3

Initiates and organizes safety inspections and drills.

SME
3
2

Devises and initiates makes efforts to achieve sales and profit targets

SME
4
2

Handles customer’s concerns and complaints

SME
4
3

Organizes and makes work schedules for staff and teams

SME
4
4

Regularly reviews financial records

SME
4
3

 
Competencies were rated on scales of importance, need at entry, and distinguishing value (Table 2 below).   Competencies that scored less than three on importance and distinguishing value or 2 and below for entry were considered noncritical and therefore dropped.
Table 2: Job analysis worksheet for competencies

Competency
Source
Importance
Need at entry
Distinguishing value

Reading

SME
5
5
5

Writing

SME
5
5
5

Interpersonal skills – leadership, active listening, delegation

SME
4
4
4

Oral communication

SME
4
4
4

Customer focus and service

SME
4
4
4

Analysis and judgment

SME
4
3
3

Negotiation

SME
4
3
3

Business knowledge and Organizational awareness

SME
4
3
3

Concern for employee morale

SME
4
3
3

Self-confidence

SME
4
3
3

Integrity and ethics

SME
4
3
3

Strategic leadership

SME
4
3
3

Concern for employee development

SME
4
3
3

 
The SME was then requested to complete the linkage scale, which involved testing each of the identified critical tasks against each of the competencies to evaluate their relevance (see table 3 below). If any of the competencies were not linked to the tasks, then it would have been omitted. In this case, all identified competencies were found relevant.
Table 3: Linkage scale: How important is this competency for effective task performance?

Linkage Scale
1 = Not Important 2 = Somewhat Important 3 = Important 4 = Very Important 5 = Extremely Important

Task number
Competency Number

 
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Contacts others orally to obtain information

1
1
4
5
1
4
2
2
3
3
2
2
2

Understands non-technical materials (e.g., letters, memoranda, electronic mail, simple instructions.

5
5
1
1
1
4
2
2
1
0
2
2
0

Correctly applies laws to specific issues.

3
2
1
2
1
4
2
4
2
3
4
2
1

Makes plans and organizes operations for instance catering and accommodation

3
3
4
3
3
3
3
4
2
4
3
2
1

Recruits, trains, and manages staff

2
2
4
5
2
3
3
2
5
4
5
5
5

Ensures compliance with various rules and regulations such as health and safety and licenses

3
2
2
2
3
3
2
4
2
3
5
2
4

Offers support, mentoring and counseling to staff members

2
3
5
5
2
3
3
2
5
4
4
3
5

Handles suppliers and contractors

2
4
4
4
1
3
4
4
2
4
5
2
1

Initiates and organizes safety inspections and drills.

2
3
3
3
2
3
3
3
2
3
2
2
2

Devises and initiates efforts to achieve sales and profit targets

4
4
4
3
2
4
4
5
3
5
3
5
2

Handles customer’s concerns and complaints

2
3
4
5
5
4
4
4
3
5
4
3
1

Regularly reviews financial records

2
4
1
2
1
4
2
4
1
3
3
3
1

 
The matrix – Present the actual job requirements matrix
Title: Hotel Manager
Reports to: Managing director
Based at: Some specific Restaurant
Job purpose
To plan, coordinate, manage, and oversee strategic and day-to-day operations of the restaurant, to satisfy customer needs.
Summary of the position
The hotel manager is in charge of the daily management and operations and its staff. Commercially responsible of budgeting, financial management, strategic and short-term planning, organization, and directing of all operations including; front office, food and beverage, recreation, and general housekeeping. Other than the strategic overview, hotel manager needs and eye for detail for instance by ensuring and setting examples of services in a way that meets the customers’ expectations. Both the business and people require to be managed.
Job duties
Essential Job functions – Key responsibilities and accountabilities

Recruit, train, manage, motivate staff as per the company’s policies and in compliance with statutory regulations and essential human resource procedures including; appraisals, conflict resolution, discipline etc.
Identify the need, plan, implement appropriate advertising and promotional efforts
Liaise with relevant institutions of authority such as police, health and safety inspectors etc. as required
Manage and enhance staff and customer’s capacities in such aspects as safety, emergency procedures, security, as per the company and regulatory requirements
Collect and maintain necessary data for the organization and information on competitor activities and share this with relevant teams within the hotel.
Attend and participate in meetings, strategy and policy making, and their subsequent implementation
Devise strategies, forecast and report on expenditure, incomes, and general business performance as per company’s requirements
Manage the physical environment, layouts, image, general appearance, and ergonomics in order to ensure comfort and satisfaction for both customers and employees.
Manage and ensure that necessary equipment, furniture within the restaurant to ensure they are in good working condition.
Manage expenditure and other factors that influence performance and profitability of the restaurant.
Manage sales and customer service aspects, staff capability and competence in a way that ensures sales performance and customer satisfaction.
Deal with other suppliers and other partners.

Job tasks and duties

The position holder contacts others orally to obtain information
Understands non-technical materials (e.g., letters, memoranda, electronic mail, and simple instructions
Correctly applies laws to specific issues.
Makes plans and organizes operations for instance catering and accommodation
Recruits, trains, and manages staff
Ensures compliance with various rules and regulations such as health and safety and licenses
Offers support, mentoring and counseling to staff members
Handles suppliers and contractors
Initiates and organizes safety inspections and drills
Devises and initiates makes efforts to achieve sales and profit targets
Handles customer’s concerns and complaints
Organizes and makes work schedules for staff and teams
Regularly reviews financial records

Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities used to do the Job
Particular Job skills: The position holder should be able to communicate effectively orally and through written media. He/she should have a good understanding appreciation of principles of management, marketing, advertising, human resource management, customer service, and public relations. He/she should be able to effectively communicate through telephone and email.
Education and training – Bachelors degree in business management, two years experience in a similar position of as an assistant manager.
Literacy and numeracy skills: He should understand basic business calculations including profit and loss, gross margin, overheads, and balance sheet. He should be competent in writing business letters and quotations.
Management ability: Should be able to manage staff through application of necessary skills and experience.
Physical requirements of the job: Position holder should be mature and domestically stable. He/she should be able to work for extended hours in some circumstances as situations may demand. Should have a reliable means to commute to the office and have a valid driving license.
Equipment used to do the job
The position holder should be proficient in Microsoft Windows, especially MS Word and MS Excel, Internet and email.
Supervision/contacts of the job
The hotel manager is answerable to the managing director located in the head office. The team leaders of the various section teams including; front office, food and beverage, recreation, and general housekeeping. The assistant manager is also answerable to him.
Career path associated with the job
A potential career progression for this position is to become the managing director. In this position, the managing director is in charge of the three subsidiary hotels. To qualify for this position in future would require year of experience and good performance in the present position.
Person-Profile template
Personality: Strategically focused, self-motivating, with a good focus on quality and profitability. Should be results-oriented, good planner and evaluate performance. The position holder should be credible, confident and mature in dealing with customers, staff, and other parties. Reliable, determined, well presented, hardworking. He/she should be a team player and good communicator with wide focus and ability to consider another individual’s perspective.
Skills and aptitudes – ability to resolve disputes,
Competencies required for career path

Good communication skills – listening, speaking
Good customer relations
Organization skills
Basic understanding of finances
Good computer skills including Windows Operating System, MS Word and MS Excel
Dealing with difficult situations and dispute resolution

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Works Cited
Association of College Unions International. Hotel Manager. Association of College Unions International. 11. Dec. 2009. Web. 12 Feb. 2012.
Best Job Descriptions. Hotel Manager Job Description. Best Job Descriptions. 2010. Web. 11 Feb. 2012.
Prospects. Hotel manager. Prospects-UK’s official Graduate Careers Website. 2011. Web. 10 Feb. 2012.
University of Houston. Job Analysis Questionnaire. Retrieved from www.uh.edu/hr/HRFORMS/JAQ.doc.
US Office of Personnel Management (OPM). Delegated Examining Operations Handbook: A Guide for Federal Agency Examining Offices. US Office of Personnel Management. May 2007. Web. 12 Feb. 2012.
Gaikwad, Mukta. Hotel General Manager Job Description. Ehoteliar. 23 May 2011. Web. 12 Feb. 2012.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


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