Introduction
A researcher is testing new medication designed to improve cholesterol levels. It is important to note that there are two types of cholesterol: lowdensity lipoproteins (LDL) and highdensity lipoproteins (HDL). HDL is also referred to as “good” cholesterol and it is considered to be optimal when its levels are 60 or higher. On the other hand, LDL is also known as “bad” cholesterol and lower numbers are better such that levels below 100 are considered optimal (Byryg, 2009). In this paper, the three different versions of the new medication (Drug A, Drug B and Drug C) are tested for their effectiveness in reducing LDL levels and raising the levels of HDL. MANOVA analysis has been conducted to ascertain which version of the drugs (A, B or C) is most promising. The first section provides exploratory data analyses for the dataset collected from four samples (control group, group A, group B and group C). In addition, this section deals with MANOVA analysis, descriptive statistics, parameter estimates and posthoc tests. The second section is a reflection of the experiences acquired in this course with a focus on the importance of the experiences in future dissertations. Finally, the last section of the paper is a multiple choices answers to an “Endofcourse Stats Quiz.”
Exploratory data analysis
Control Group
In the control group of medication, the mean for lowdensity lipoproteins is 101.10 while the mean for highdensity lipoprotein is 58.70. The median for LDL is 101.00 while the median for HDL is 59.50. The mode for LDL is 101.00 while the mode for HDL is 62.00. The minimum value for LDL is 82.00 while the minimum for HDL is 49.00. The maximum value for LDL is 120.00 and that of HDL is 67.00 (Table 1). This is also represented in Figures I and 2 in the appendix. Figure 1 shows that LDL values are distributed around 100.00 while Figure 2 indicates that HDL values are distributed around 60.00.
From the observations, it is clear that medication for control group LDL is above the optimal level (above 100.00). This implies that the medication is not effective in reducing “bad” cholesterol. Similarly, the medication for the control group is not effective in raising the levels of HDL as indicated by lower than optimal values of HDL (below 60.00). The maximum value for LDL is significantly high (120.00) whereas the minimum value for HDL is significantly low (48.00). This further asserts that the medication is not promising for control of cholesterol levels (Byryg, 2009).
Group A
In group A medication, the mean for lowdensity lipoproteins is 86.20 while the mean for highdensity lipoprotein is 53.70. The median for LDL is 88.50 while the median for HDL is 52.50. The mode for LDL is 76.00 while the mode for HDL is 52.00. The minimum value for LDL is 76.00 while the minimum for HDL is 49.00. The maximum value for LDL is 94.00 and that of HDL is 61.00 (Table 2). This is also represented in Figures 3 and 4 in the appendix. According to Figure 3, LDL values are skewed towards values below 100.00. Figure 4 shows that HDL values are skewed towards values below 60.00.
Group A medication shows effectiveness in controlling LDL as indicated by values below 100.00. All the descriptives (mean, median, mode, minimum, and maximum) are below 100.00 which is the optimal value for “bad” cholesterol. Nevertheless, Group A medication is not promising in raising the levels of “good” cholesterol since descriptives are below 60.00the optimal value for “good” cholesterol should 60.00 and above (Byryg, 2009).
Group B:
According to Table 3 that shows Group B medication outcomes, the mean for “bad” cholesterol is 121.40 while that for “good” cholesterol is 68.60. The median value for “bad” cholesterol is 120.50 whereas that for “good” cholesterol is 68.50. The mode for “bad” cholesterol is 107.00 while the mode for “good” cholesterol is 68.00. The minimum value for “bad” cholesterol is 107.00, whereas the minimum value for “good” cholesterol is 63.00. The maximum value for “bad” cholesterol is 136.00 whereas the maximum value for “good” cholesterol is 74.00 (Table 3). The above information is also presented in Figures 5 and 6. Figure 5 shows that LDL values are skewed towards values above 100.00. On the other hand, Figure 6 shows that HDL values are skewed towards values above 60.00.
From the above analyses, it is evident that Group B medication is ineffective in controlling LDL since all the descriptives are above the optimal value (100.00). In fact the maximum value for LDL is significantly above the optimal value (136.00). In the contrary, Group B medication is effective in raising the levels of HDL as indicated by descriptives values above 60.00the minimum recommended HDL value (Byryg, 2009). The maximum HDL value for this medication is 74.00 whereas the minimum value is 63.00 (Table 3).
Group C:
Table 4 shows the outcomes for Group C medication. The mean value for LDL is 83.20 whereas the mean value for HDL is 64.70. The median value for LDL is 82.50 whereas the median for HDL is 65.50. The mode for LDL is 79.00 while the mode for HDL is 66.00. The minimum value for LDL is 79.00 whereas the minimum value for HDL is 58.00. The maximum value for LDL is 94.00 whereas the maximum value is 70.00. Figure 7 shows that LDL values are skewed towards values below 100.00. In addition, Figure 8 shows that HDL values are skewed towards values above 60.00.
Group C medication is the most promising medication for cholesterol in this study. From the above analyses, there is no doubt that LDL levels are reduced significantly by the medication. All the descriptives for LDL are below optimal LDL level (100.00). In fact the minimum value for LDL in this group is 79.00 whereas the maximum value is 94.00. HDL outcomes are also promising as indicated by descriptive values above 60.00. The maximum value for HDL is 70.00 which is way above minimum recommended HDL value (Byryg, 2009).
MANOVA
In this analysis, a oneway MANOVA test is conducted since there is only one independent variable (group) which is multilevel (UWSP, 2010). Each group of medication is measured on its significance in influencing the levels of LDL and HDL. It is important to note that when the Wilks’ lambda value is small, the dispersion between the groups is large (Statistics Solutions Dissertation Consulting, 2010). In our case, the Wilks’ lambda is 0.087 indicating that there is a very high dispersion between the drugs. To explain further, it is observed that the control group of medication indicated no effectiveness for both LDL and HDL. Group A medication was effective in improving LDL levels but ineffective in improving HDL levels. Drug B was ineffective in improving LDL levels but effective in improving HDL. Finally, Drug C was effective in improving both LDL and HDL levels. This is a clear indication of a significant dispersion between the groups of medication. There is an effect between the groups as explained by an F value of 27.921 in the Wilks’ lambda (Statistics solutions Dissertation Consulting, 2010). This implies that the three medications have some effect on cholesterol levels of patients under study.
Descriptive Statistics for MANOVA
According to Table 6, the means for lowdensity lipoprotein are: Drug A, 86.20; Drug B, 121.40; Drug C, 83.20. This implies that Drug A and Drug C are effective in reducing LDL levels below 100.00. However, Drug B is ineffective in reducing LDL levels since it exceeds the optimal level (121.40). Standard deviations for LDL are: Drug A, 6.795; Drug B, 9.834 and Drug C, 4.442. The smallest deviation from the mean is in Drug C and the highest deviation is in Drug B. This indicates that Drug C is the best in controlling the levels of LDL while Drug B is the least effective.
For highdensity lipoproteins, the means are: 53.70 for drug A, 68.60 for drug B and 64.70 for drug C. Since HDL levels are considered best when they are above 60.00 (Byryg, 2009), it is evident that Drug A is ineffective in improving HDL while drug B and C are effective. The standard deviations for the three drugs are as follows: 3.466, 3.134, and 4.029 for Drug A, B, and C respectively. This is an indication that the three drugs have a low standard deviation from their means.
Parameter Estimates
The parameter estimates for this analysis are indicated in Table 7. The intercept for LDL is 83.20 indicating that when no drug is used, LDL level is at 83.20. Use of drug A causes an increase in LDL by a factor of 3.00 (sig 0.41; CI 95%). Use of drug B causes an increase in LDL by a factor of 38.20 (sig 0.00; CI 95%) whereas use of drug C has no effect on LDL since the gradient is zero. The zero gradient value for Drug C has been obtained due to redundancy in the improvement factor. In case of HDL, the value 64.70 is the intercept of the curve indicating that when no drug is used, HDL levels are at 64.70. While using drug A, the levels of HDL reduce by a factor 11.00 (sig. 0.00; CI 95%). In addition, use of drug B results into an increase in HDL by a factor of 3.90 (sig. 0.051; CI 95%) whereas use of drug C results into no change in HDL levels due to redundancy in the improvement factor (see Table 7).
Posthoc tests (Tukey HSD, GamesHowell test and Dunnett’s Test)
Post –hoc tests have been used in this analysis since there is a significant difference in how drug A, B and C affect the levels of cholesterol. Although there is no interaction between the various variables in the various groups of medication, it is evident that there is an effect of changing medication. To compare differences in effectiveness of drugs A, B and C in improving cholesterol levels, posthoc tests (Tukey HSD, GamesHowell test and Dunnett’s test) were carried out (see Table 8). According to Tukey HSD test that compares the effects of the three drugs A, B and C in reducing LDL, it is evident that a significant difference exists (sd 0.839; CI 95%) in improvement of cholesterol levels when Drug A is compared to drug C (significance is greater than 0.05; Table 8). However, there is no difference in reduction of LDL levels when Drug A is compared to Drug B (significance is zero; CI 95%; Table 8). When comparing the effectiveness of drug B to that of drug A in improving LDL levels, it is evident that there is no difference (significance is zero; CI 95%). The significance is also zero (see Table 8) when comparing the effectiveness of Drug B to that of Drug C in reducing levels of LDL, thus there is no difference in the treatments. When comparing the effectiveness of drug C to that of Drug A in reducing LDL levels, it is clear that a significant difference (0.839; CI 95%) exists (significance is greater then 0.05). However, there is no difference in effectiveness of in improvement of LDL levels when comparing Drug C with drug B (significance is zero; Table 8). The same pattern of observations is made using the GamesHowell test. Using Dunnett’s test, it is clear that a significant difference (0.742; CI 95, twotailed test) exists in improving LDL levels when comparing Drug A with Drug C but no difference exists between Drug B and C.
Tukey HSD test for comparing the effectiveness of the three drugs in improving the levels of high density lipoproteins have also been shown in Table 8. From this analysis, it is evident that there is no significance in improvement of HDL levels when comparing drug A with drug B or drug A with drug C (significance is zero; CI 95%). Tukey’s HSD test for comparing the effectiveness of drug B with that of drug C in improving levels of HDL however shows a significant difference (0.202; CI 95%) i.e. significance is greater than 0.05. However, there is no difference when comparing Drug B with Drug A in improvement of HDL. It is also evident that there is a significant difference (0.202; CI 95%) between Drug C and Drug B in improving HDL levels but there is no difference when comparing the effectiveness of Drug C with Drug A in improvement of HDL levels. GamesHowell test gives a similar pattern of results. Dunnett’s test however confirms a significant difference (0.127; CI 95%; 2tailed test) when comparing the effectives of Drug B with Drug C in improving HDL levels.
From the above MANOVA tests and subsequent posthoc tests it is right to conclude that Drug C is effective in reducing LDL and improving HDL levels and therefore it is the best drug. At the same time, posthoc tests are able to substantiate that although Drug A and Drug B show promise in improving LDL and HDL, the Drugs do so partially. As such, Drug A and B are not the best drugs for improving cholesterol.
Reflection
Taking the Probability and Statistics course has been worthwhile as it has equipped me in a number of aspects. I will discuss these aspects at the microscope of coding and entering data in SPSS, data analysis and lastly, interpreting and reporting SPSS outputs. First, I have acquired handson experience in coding data in the “variable view” window in SPSS. In this section, I have been able to classify data type as string, numeric, date, dollar, custom currency, scientific notation, dot and comma. In addition, I have been able to differentiate between values and value labels. Other aspects learnt include adjusting the width, decimals and columns in a variable view, and classifying measures as nominal, ordinal or scale. Other than gaining experience in coding data, entering data in the “data view” window has also been an invaluable experience.
I cannot fail to mention important skills acquired in this topic as regards data analysis. In specific, skills in exploratory data analysis cannot be ignored. These range from performing descriptive statistics, generating charts, graphs and frequencies for a given dataset. Developing correlation coefficients i.e. Pearson, Kendall’s taub and Spearman correlation has been one of the greatest aspects learnt in this course. Moreover, I have been able to test the level of significance using either a onetailed test or a twotailed test. To compare relationships between dependent and independent variables, I have learnt that I can use regression analyses. These include linear and logistic regression tests. Not only have I learnt to generate means for different datasets but I have also acquired sufficient knowledge in comparing means. In comparing means, I have known that ANCOVA is used when one wants to find out the effect of a dependent variable that has an effect on other dependent variables but has not been considered in the study. Knowledge on MANOVA test has been important in identifying whether independent variables in one or more levels have any significant effect on dependent variables. Performing posthoc tests to determine the validity of hypotheses is among the greatest aspects of data analysis that I have learnt.
Learning how to enter and analyze data in SPSS would have been meaningless if I would not have learnt how to interpret and report SPSS outputs. It is important to mention that I have been able to interpret descriptive statistics, correlations, and regressions among other important SPSS outputs. In addition, knowing how to interpret various measures such as significance level, degrees of freedom, and confidence interval have been important skills acquired throughout this course. Understanding and reporting results from graphs, charts and tables especially in American Psychological Association (APA) style of formatting has been a valuable thing for this course and hopefully in future research.
In view of the above learnt skills, I have no doubt that this course has equipped me to tackle my dissertation work. Specifically, I am positioned to handle data analysis and presentation sections which are core in dissertations. In addition, I am armed with skills of data collection such that it is possible to code, enter and analyze using SPSS which is a power statistical tool. Much as I have gained a wealth of knowledge in probability and statistics especially using SPSS, I feel that it would have been beneficial if other (apart from the above mentioned) analytical techniques were learnt. Knowledge in logit and probit models for instance would be useful for analyzing different aspects of variables in research.
End of course Stats Quiz
B
C
C
B
C
A
A
C
A
D
C
D
B
A
C
C
C
A
D
D
B
C
D
D
D
D
B
C
D
C
B
B
B
C
D
B
B
A
C
B
A
D
A
D
B
A
C
D
B
C
References
Byryg, R. B. (2009). Understanding cholesterol numbers. WebMD. Retrieved 20, Aug. 2010 from http://www.webmd.com/cholesterolmanagement/guide/understandingnumbers
Statistics Solutions Dissertation Consulting. (2010). MANOVA. Retrieved 20, Aug. 2010 from http://www.statisticssolutions.com/methodschapter/statisticaltests/manova/
UWSP. (2010). Part IX: Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) Overview of the MANOVA Procedure. Retrieved 20 Aug. 2010 from http://www.uwsp.edu/psych/cw/statmanual/manovauses.html
Appendix
Table 1: Descriptive Statistics for Control Group Medication
Statistics
group
Lowdensity Lipoprotein
Highdensity Lipoprotein
N
Valid
10
10
10
Missing
0
0
0
Mean
.00
101.1000
58.7000
Median
.00
101.0000
59.5000
Mode
0
101.00(a)
62.00
Std. Deviation
.000
9.84829
6.07454
Variance
.000
96.98889
36.90000
Range
0
38.00
18.00
Minimum
0
82.00
49.00
Maximum
0
120.00
67.00
Sum
0
1011.00
587.00
a Multiple modes exist. The smallest value is shown
Table 2: Descriptive Statistics for Group A Medication
Statistics
group
Lowdensity Lipoprotein
Highdensity Lipoprotein
N
Valid
10
10
10
Missing
0
0
0
Mean
1.00
86.20
53.70
Median
1.00
88.50
52.50
Mode
1
76(a)
52
Std. Deviation
.000
6.795
3.466
Variance
.000
46.178
12.011
Range
0
18
12
Minimum
1
76
49
Maximum
1
94
61
Sum
10
862
537
a Multiple modes exist. The smallest value is shown
Table 3: Descriptive Statistics for Group B Medication
Statistics
group
Lowdensity Lipoprotein
Highdensity Lipoprotein
N
Valid
10
10
10
Missing
0
0
0
Mean
2.00
121.40
68.60
Median
2.00
120.50
68.50
Mode
2
107(a)
68
Std. Deviation
.000
9.834
3.134
Variance
.000
96.711
9.822
Range
0
29
11
Minimum
2
107
63
Maximum
2
136
74
Sum
20
1214
686
a Multiple modes exist. The smallest value is shown
Table 4: Descriptive Statistics for Group C Medication
Statistics
group
Lowdensity Lipoprotein
Highdensity Lipoprotein
N
Valid
10
10
10
Missing
0
0
0
Mean
3.00
83.20
64.70
Median
3.00
82.50
65.50
Mode
3
79(a)
66
Std. Deviation
.000
4.442
4.029
Variance
.000
19.733
16.233
Range
0
15
12
Minimum
3
79
58
Maximum
3
94
70
Sum
30
832
647
a Multiple modes exist. The smallest value is shown
Table 5: OnewayMANOVA
Multivariate Tests(c)
Effect
Value
F
Hypothesis df
Error df
Sig.
Intercept
Pillai’s Trace
.997
6049.563(a)
2.000
35.000
.000
Wilks’ Lambda
.003
6049.563(a)
2.000
35.000
.000
Hotelling’s Trace
345.689
6049.563(a)
2.000
35.000
.000
Roy’s Largest Root
345.689
6049.563(a)
2.000
35.000
.000
Group
Pillai’s Trace
1.347
24.749
6.000
72.000
.000
Wilks’ Lambda
.087
27.921(a)
6.000
70.000
.000
Hotelling’s Trace
5.520
31.277
6.000
68.000
.000
Roy’s Largest Root
4.379
52.548(b)
3.000
36.000
.000
a Exact statistic
b The statistic is an upper bound on F that yields a lower bound on the significance level.
c Design: Intercept+Group
Table 6: Descriptive Statistics for MANOVA
Descriptive Statistics
group
Mean
Std. Deviation
N
Lowdensity Lipoprotein
Control
101.10
9.848
10
Drug A
86.20
6.795
10
Drug B
121.40
9.834
10
Drug C
83.20
4.442
10
Total
97.98
17.165
40
Highdensity Lipoprotein
Control
58.70
6.075
10
Drug A
53.70
3.466
10
Drug B
68.60
3.134
10
Drug C
64.70
4.029
10
Total
61.42
7.103
40
Table 7: Parameter Estimates
Parameter Estimates
Dependent Variable
Parameter
B
Std. Error
t
Sig.
95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound
Upper Bound
Lowdensity Lipoprotein
Intercept
83.200
2.548
32.658
.000
78.033
88.367
[Group=0]
17.900
3.603
4.968
.000
10.593
25.207
[Group=1]
3.000
3.603
.833
.411
4.307
10.307
[Group=2]
38.200
3.603
10.603
.000
30.893
45.507
[Group=3]
0(a)
.
.
.
.
.
Highdensity Lipoprotein
Intercept
64.700
1.369
47.261
.000
61.924
67.476
[Group=0]
6.000
1.936
3.099
.004
9.927
2.073
[Group=1]
11.000
1.936
5.682
.000
14.927
7.073
[Group=2]
3.900
1.936
2.014
.051
.027
7.827
[Group=3]
0(a)
.
.
.
.
.
a This parameter is set to zero because it is redundant.
Table 8: Posthoc tests (Tukey HSD, GamesHowell test and Dunnett’s Test)
Multiple Comparisons
Dependent Variable
(I) group
(J) group
Mean Difference (IJ)
Std. Error
Sig.
95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound
Upper Bound
Lowdensity Lipoprotein
Tukey HSD
Control
Drug A
14.90(*)
3.603
.001
5.20
24.60
Drug B
20.30(*)
3.603
.000
30.00
10.60
Drug C
17.90(*)
3.603
.000
8.20
27.60
Drug A
Control
14.90(*)
3.603
.001
24.60
5.20
Drug B
35.20(*)
3.603
.000
44.90
25.50
Drug C
3.00
3.603
.839
6.70
12.70
Drug B
Control
20.30(*)
3.603
.000
10.60
30.00
Drug A
35.20(*)
3.603
.000
25.50
44.90
Drug C
38.20(*)
3.603
.000
28.50
47.90
Drug C
Control
17.90(*)
3.603
.000
27.60
8.20
Drug A
3.00
3.603
.839
12.70
6.70
Drug B
38.20(*)
3.603
.000
47.90
28.50
GamesHowell
Control
Drug A
14.90(*)
3.784
.006
4.07
25.73
Drug B
20.30(*)
4.401
.001
32.74
7.86
Drug C
17.90(*)
3.416
.001
7.82
27.98
Drug A
Control
14.90(*)
3.784
.006
25.73
4.07
Drug B
35.20(*)
3.780
.000
46.01
24.39
Drug C
3.00
2.567
.655
4.37
10.37
Drug B
Control
20.30(*)
4.401
.001
7.86
32.74
Drug A
35.20(*)
3.780
.000
24.39
46.01
Drug C
38.20(*)
3.412
.000
28.13
48.27
Drug C
Control
17.90(*)
3.416
.001
27.98
7.82
Drug A
3.00
2.567
.655
10.37
4.37
Drug B
38.20(*)
3.412
.000
48.27
28.13
Dunnett t (2sided)(a)
Control
Drug C
17.90(*)
3.603
.000
9.07
26.73
Drug A
Drug C
3.00
3.603
.742
5.83
11.83
Drug B
Drug C
38.20(*)
3.603
.000
29.37
47.03
Highdensity Lipoprotein
Tukey HSD
Control
Drug A
5.00
1.936
.064
.21
10.21
Drug B
9.90(*)
1.936
.000
15.11
4.69
Drug C
6.00(*)
1.936
.019
11.21
.79
Drug A
Control
5.00
1.936
.064
10.21
.21
Drug B
14.90(*)
1.936
.000
20.11
9.69
Drug C
11.00(*)
1.936
.000
16.21
5.79
Drug B
Control
9.90(*)
1.936
.000
4.69
15.11
Drug A
14.90(*)
1.936
.000
9.69
20.11
Drug C
3.90
1.936
.202
1.31
9.11
Drug C
Control
6.00(*)
1.936
.019
.79
11.21
Drug A
11.00(*)
1.936
.000
5.79
16.21
Drug B
3.90
1.936
.202
9.11
1.31
GamesHowell
Control
Drug A
5.00
2.212
.154
1.41
11.41
Drug B
9.90(*)
2.162
.002
16.21
3.59
Drug C
6.00
2.305
.082
12.61
.61
Drug A
Control
5.00
2.212
.154
11.41
1.41
Drug B
14.90(*)
1.478
.000
19.08
10.72
Drug C
11.00(*)
1.681
.000
15.76
6.24
Drug B
Control
9.90(*)
2.162
.002
3.59
16.21
Drug A
14.90(*)
1.478
.000
10.72
19.08
Drug C
3.90
1.614
.112
.69
8.49
Drug C
Control
6.00
2.305
.082
.61
12.61
Drug A
11.00(*)
1.681
.000
6.24
15.76
Drug B
3.90
1.614
.112
8.49
.69
Dunnett t (2sided)(a)
Control
Drug C
6.00(*)
1.936
.010
10.75
1.25
Drug A
Drug C
11.00(*)
1.936
.000
15.75
6.25
Drug B
Drug C
3.90
1.936
.127
.85
8.65
Based on observed means.
* The mean difference is significant at the .05 level.
a Dunnett ttests treat one group as a control, and compare all other groups against it.
Figure 1: a histogram for lowdensity lipoprotein for the control group
Figure 2: a histogram for highdensity lipoprotein for the control group
Figure 3: a histogram for lowdensity lipoprotein Group A medication
Figure 4: a histogram for highdensity lipoprotein Group B medication
Figure 5: a histogram for lowdensity lipoprotein Group B medication
Figure 6: a histogram for highdensity lipoprotein Group B medication
Figure 7: a histogram for lowdensity lipoprotein Group C medication
Figure 8: a histogram for highdensity lipoprotein Group C medication
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If the writer doesn’t address all the questions on your assignment brief or the delivered paper appears to be off the topic, you can ask for a refund. Or, if it is applicable, you can opt in for free revision within 1430 days, depending on your paper’s length. The revision or refund request should be sent within 14 days after delivery. The customer gets 100% moneyback in case they haven't downloaded the paper. All approved refunds will be returned to the customer’s credit card or Bonus Balance in a form of store credit. Take a note that we will send an extra compensation if the customers goes with a store credit. 
24/7 Customer Support
We have a support team working 24/7 ready to give your issue concerning the order their immediate attention. If you have any questions about the ordering process, communication with the writer, payment options, feel free to join live chat. Be sure to get a fast response. They can also give you the exact price quote, taking into account the timing, desired academic level of the paper, and the number of pages.