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Natural Science: Human Interaction with the Earth

Human Interaction with the Earth

How Processes tectonics act to make metal and mineral

The plate tectonic process has contributed to the restructuring of the earth continents leading to the emergence of minerals and metals. Geologist holds that, the underlying movement of plate tectonic is as a result of the flow within the mantel. This makes the warm rocks to rises up while denser rocks to capsize down (Kearey, Brooks & Hill, 2002). The driving force of the herein rocks are said to have been attributed to the subduction of more heavy oceanic lithosphere that are found within the mantle. On the contrary, the cold oceanic lithosphere capsizes down within the mantle as the hot plumes lead to the transfer of heat towards the earth surface (Tarbuck & Lutgens, 2012). The movement of transfer of buoyant plumes towards the earth surface leads to mixing of chemicals which leads to formation of magma and minerals. Additionally, the process tectonic contribution towards mineral formation may be expressed based on three plate boundaries namely; divergent boundaries, convergent boundaries and transformation (Kearey, Brooks & Hill, 2002). At transformation boundaries, two plates diverge away from each other. This divergence causes new materials from the mantle to come up leading to formation of new plate materials. On the contrally, convergent boundary also known as destructive boundaries occur as a result of movement of plates towards each other whereby, less dense plates are forced underneath. Normally, those plates contain some oceanic crust or continental crust. The collision of continental crust with the continental plates leads to formation of mountain rages where rocks and minerals are found (Kearey, Brooks & Hill, 2002). Additionally, the plate tectonic process provide a substantial bases of understanding how igneous process occurs leading to production of mineral resources such as; silver, copper,mercury,lead,platinum and nickel (Tarbuck & Lutgens, 2012). Igneous process occurs when magma cools at different temperatures leading to production of minerals stated herein. Additionally, the contact of metamorphism leads to formation of metallic minerals such as galena, magnetite and sphalerites. However, the herein materials may be subjected to alteration into chalks and graphite at a higher temperature and pressure (Tarbuck & Lutgens, 2012). Connectively, plate tectonic movement leads to emergence of volcanoes and earth quakes. Volcanic eruptions leads to formation of gases and water, this happens when mantle rocks melt leading to production basaltic rock materials. This materials lead to creation of silica rich magma which contain water and gases (Tarbuck & Lutgens, 2012).
Ii.Ways in which human beings have altered the planet including climate change.
Human activities have changed the climate for example; via excessive release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere by individuals and factories has led to the destruction of ozone layer. This has further led to global warming (Epstein, Ferber & Sachs, 2011). Additionally, global warming has contributed to an increase in temperatures leading to drying of the wetlands. The deforestation and subsequent release of poisonous gases into the atmosphere has lead to destruction of natural habitats such as ocean and rivers. This has lead to massive death of sea animals. Additionally, overpopulation has lead to overconsumption of limited natural resources that the planet offers, this has lead to an increase in food insecurity (Epstein, Ferber & Sachs, 2011).
Iii. Composition of the solar system, similarities and differences between planets.
The solar system consists of the nine planets, stars such as the sun, comet, meteorites, asteroids, interplanetary dust and gas (Barucci, 2008). The nine which are classified into two categories namely, terrestrial planets and Jovian planets. Terrestrial planets consist of mercury, Venus, earth and mars. On the contrary, Jovian planets consist of; Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto (Barucci, 2008). Additionally, the solar system consists of other bodies such as Meteoroids which appears in the sky at night and Asteroids which moves between orbit Mars and Jupiter. In terms of similarities, the inner and outer planets are similar in the sense that, all the planets are made up of some form of matter and gaseous form of atmosphere. Additionally, the shape of both outer and inner planets is spherical and has some gravity. The planets are similar in the sense that, they are part of the components of the solar system. Connectively, both terrestrial and Jovian move around the orbit of the sun and storms are usually anticipated in both planets (De & Lissauer, 2010). However, despite the herein similarities, both terrestrial and Jovian planets have some underlying discrepancies. The two categories of planets differ in terms of; size, mass, density, rotation, and distance from the sun as well as in terms of magnetic fields (De & Lissauer, 2010). In terms of size, Jovian planets are much larger as compared to terrestrial planets. However, despite Jovian planet having a greater size, they rotate faster than terrestrial planets. Additionally, the Jovian planets are more massive as compared to terrestrial planets. The average density of terrestrial planet is higher than that of liquid water. On the contrally, the density of Jovian planets is equal to that of liquid water. The discrepancy in density may be attributed to the presence of metal and rocks within Jovian planets (Barucci, 2008). Connectively, the magnetic field of Jovian planets is stronger than that of terrestrial planets and hence, this also brings a significant discrepancy between the two categories of planets.

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