Paraphrasing, Power Point, and Research
Every student has to write research papers and also provide academic presentations during the course of their study. In the course of preparing these papers, students face an academic challenge of avoiding plagiarism. It is evident that PowerPoint presentations enhance learning and understanding to students. There are academic aspects which cannot be explained orally such as diagrams, pictures and graphs. When faced with this challenge, the best approach to use is PowerPoint presentations.Research is the world’s biggest industry at the moment. Failing to conduct research when performing different activities can cause a lot of danger and loss. In addition, conducting research appropriately is crucial in today’s changing environment.
Paraphrasing encourages a reader to connect with prior knowledge, to access what is already known about a topic and to use words that are part of the reader’s knowledge. It helps the reader to establishand retrieve cues that integrate what is previously known with what is being read. This is an important part of comprehension during the process of learning (Kletzien, 2009).
Paraphrasing is emphasized by many academic institutions because it shows respect to authors of ideas and information. Students are required to paraphrase all information or ideas borrowed from other authors. This shows that the work done by students is original. Failure to paraphrase results to plagiarism, which is an academic crime. Plagiarism can be termed as using someone’s ideas, thoughts, songs, or work without giving enough credit to the author. Plagiarism occurs when the author’s work is copied or used without proper citation. Tutors and lecturers insist that it is necessary to instill formal writing and presentation skills in students to avoid plagiarism. This can only be achieved through paraphrasing, which entails constant practice to achieve this objective. Scholars have carried out numerous studies on the effectiveness of learning where other modes of teaching or lecturing have been used.Paraphrasing and appropriate citation should be applied to avoid plagiarism. There are various ways of providing citations in an academic paper.Some of the citation methods include: American Psychological Association (APA), Modern Language Association (MLA), Turabian style, Chicago, Oxford and Harvard (Almeida, 2008).
Although paraphrasing has been identified as a strategy that skilled readers use, it has not received much attention compared to the other comprehension strategies, such as visualization, using prior knowledge, or questioning. Paraphrasing has been used in research, and when teaching students. In several intervention studies, paraphrasing has been found to help special-education students to increase comprehension (Roig, 2001).
According to Almeida (2008), paraphrasing is a learning strategy that helps individuals learn by reading a paragraph, thinking about the paragraph’s main points and details, and then putting the main points and details in their own words. Paraphrasing helps students to monitor their understanding and encourages them to access what they have previously read about a topic (Almeida, 2008),
Traditionally lecturers used to write all the learning content on a blackboard. Whatevera lecturer writes on the blackboard has a large effect on the understanding of the students. It is a real-time and flexible process of transferring the knowledge and learning content from the teacher to the students. In traditional classrooms, tutors used to write the questions and solutions on the blackboard in a step-by-step fashion. This allows the tutor to emphasize on abstract concepts in a flexible manner during the lesson. It allows students to feel the subtle rhythms in the teacher’s teaching and it is easy for students to comprehend, understand and learn the content. One advantage of PowerPoint is that it uses visual and audio stimulus simultaneously. Secondly PowerPoint applications are easy to store because they require very little storage space.Research involves the use of materials, ideas and text from different authors.(Beyer, 2011).
One challenge of using blackboard writing when teaching is the fact that presenting the materials is time consuming. This is true when the teacher’s back obscures a portion of what is written on the blackboard. This increases restiveness in the class. It also limits the way of presenting teaching materials (Bartsch & Cobern, 2003).For example, writing on a blackboard provides an inflexible presentation, few colors and styles, as well as difficulties in displaying pictures or multimedia content. The second disadvantage is that materials cannot be stored, reused, reproduced, or interchanged. Consequently, students have to write notes or copy the material from the blackboard, all of which is inconvenient. This results to an increased external cognitive load and splits the student’s attention. Thirdly, blackboard writing limits teacher-to-student interaction. In addition, a large amount of chalk dust is produced when using a blackboard. The chalk dust may affect the health of the teachers or the students (Beyer, 2011).
Students experience a lot of challenges when they present their work or defend their thesis. Some of the challenges include: drawing diagrams, graphs and presentation of pictures. Human beings comprehend audio and visual stimulus simultaneously. Recently, lectures are delivered using presentation software such as Microsoft PowerPoint. Using PowerPoint to present lectures benefits students because PowerPoint slides contain various multimedia formats such as text, sound, graphs, charts and video. This teaching method contributes to the students constructing learning concepts and information analysis (Yen-Shou, Hung-Hsu & Pao-Ta, 2011).
The use of PowerPoint is widely applied in the blended learning environment to improve learning. The multimedia learning environment uses several types of representation including text, audio, graphs, photographs, animation, or video. The multimedia teaching content is readily and effectively communicated between teachers and learners using popular presentation devices such as monitors or projectors. Today, many researchers are focused on constructing multimedia instructional environments such as electronic classrooms, virtual classrooms and interactive multimedia environments (Beyer, 2011).
Research is creative work carried out systematically to increase the stock of knowledge about humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. Another reason why research is done is to write ideas. This helps express the ideas that people have concerning certain topics. Most individuals, students and lecturers, believe that ideas are more compelling when they are written than when they are retained in the minds. A person cannot know how persuasive his/her ideas are unless the ideas are separated from thoughts and encoded in an organized format that people can study (Tulinius, et al 2012).
There are various forms of research; first is scientific research, which relies on the application of the scientific methods of data collection. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. Secondly,there is artistic research, which is also seen as practice-based research. The artistic research occurs when creative works are considered. It is the debatable body of thought, which offers an alternative to pure scientific methods in the search for knowledge and truth (Rogers, 2012).
Paraphrasing, research and the use of PowerPoint presentations are important academic skills. Theft of intellectual property is criminal in nature and my lead to prosecution in a court of law. Academic writers and scholars should ensure that all sourced material should be properly referenced and cited to uphold personal and institutional integrity. Paraphrasing is one of the best modes that students can use to avoid plagiarism when writing classwork assignments. The work of the original author should be properly cited using the convectional citation methods. This ensures that students do not get a fail in their examinations. As technology advances, the mode of teaching and presentation also change. As such, the use of blackboard when teaching has been abandoned, and PowerPoint presentations have been adopted. PowerPoint presentations illustrate diagrams, charts, graphs and pictures. During the research process, students should ensure that they adhere to the set standards of citation. Research is done whenever a person gathers information to answer a question or solve a problem. When students search for information to complete their assignments they engage in academic research. People write to share ideas and to improve the existing ideas. Research entails reading, and everyone can not memorize everything he/she has read. Research writing also provides a larger picture of what a person has read. When a person arranges and rearranges the results of research in new ways, they discover new implications, connections and complications.
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