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Project management


Question 1: what is a project?
Question 2: project manager and sponsor


                                Project management
Question 1: what is a project?
A project is any temporary endeavor where human or machinery and financial resources are put together in the initiation, planning and execution to achieve a certain goal. A project entails a certain specification and is undertaken through a scope within a limited cost and time to deliver the expected objectives. The criteria for tangible and intangible projects
Intangible projects are defined as those projects that do not show value as a direct result of the project in terms of revenue and profits. A project manager may find it difficult to show his/her talent with the intangible projects. Therefore, instead of considering the profit as a benchmark, a manager should look into the intangible benefits such as public relations, team dynamics and cost saving that will result from the project (Field & Keller1998). Some of the intangible benefits of intangible projects include: Improved use of information technology resources and community benefits in terms of the inheritance of the tools of instructions used in a given project among others.
Tangible projects are those projects whose benefits are directly measured from the ground work. These benefits include measurable data from inventory records and statements. The project manager and the client have the responsibility to calculate the tangible benefit of the project. Benefits are determined through revenue increase, production cost limitation and reduction in operational costs. Examples of projects are: planning for friend`s wedding, construction of a bridge across the Amazon river. Non projects are those projects that are those that do not aim at producing results with a limited period. Examples of what are not projects are usually daily routines such as cleaning an office, billing clients and daily database backup. The major difference between a project and a non-project is that a non-project does not need to achieve a certain set goals. A non project does not have to be completed in a given time. Therefore, for a task to be considered a project, it has to be planned from the beginning, bound by resources, time and should achieve the desired results (Reid 1999).
Question 2: project manager and sponsor
A project manager is the person appointed in charge of a project team. The manager has the roles and responsibilities that include;

Defining the project scope
Development of the project schedule/calendar
Estimation of the cost of the project
Gaining of the project approved by the stakeholder
Monitory and measuring of the project progress
Direct the project changes and,
Closing projects

A project sponsor is the individual in charge of the accountability of a project. Such a person has the primary responsibility to ensure that the project meets the benefits agreed. The sponsor can be an organization or representatives of a given organization. The sponsor ensures that the project needs are prioritized and valid, that the project is properly launched, and the project remains viable and ensure that the project changes are properly executed. The sponsor has other roles such as approving the key deliverers of the project, conflict resolution and approving the overall project quality (Bourne 2012). The project manager and the sponsor relate closely because one of the most notable roles of the sponsor is to support the project manager. This is done through coaching, mentoring and providing leadership on the business operation issues. Lack of an effective sponsorship is a big risk to a project. Therefore, the management should ensure that effective sponsors are identified (Bourne 2012).


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