Psychology can be defined as a science that helps to understand different mental functions and behavior of individuals. Psychology can also be an academic discipline that helps to study the behavior of individuals and groups through research of personal behavior and practice. Human beings are social beings and they tend to exhibit different behaviors or reactions when faced by different situations in life. It is said that the behavior of a given individual is so much controlled by his or her mental capability and experience on some situations or happenings in life. The behavior of an individual is the outward reaction an individual will exhibit when he or she experiences a given occurrence. Thus psychology helps to understand the role played by the brain of an individual and how a given situation will affect his or her behavior towards it. Thus psychology is a discipline that uses scientific methods and doctrines to study the mental functions and behavior of a given individual. Psychologists are the experts who practice psychology and they term their patients as clients. The psychologists use their psychological knowledge to administer to different treatment of mental problems and breakdown and thus offer a very important service to the society (Franklin, 1982).
Theoretical perspective of psychology
Psychology as a discipline is divided into three main theoretical perspectives which include cognitive, affective and the conative perspectives. A cognitive theory is known to study the behavior of an individual through analysis of information and thus mainly deals with the information of the brain and how the brain controls the behavior of the given individual. Cognitive theory uses scientific information that is helpful in understanding the functions of the brain and brings insight in the brain functioning process. Cognitive theory is also used to understand the unconscious mind of an individual as mostly dictate the behavior of an individual through need and survival. The mind of an individual is said to work and process normally if the behavior of a given individual is said to be in an acceptable level and may not harm others. Human beings are born with a strong functioning brain that controls and coordinates most of their actions and behavior. It’s with this driving force that individuals tend to possess different behaviors that are unique to each individual. Psychologists normally explore the aspect of interpersonal relationships between individuals and how they affect group members. The behavior of an individual is at a great extent controlled by his or her brain and thus the cognitive theory will help provide information that is crucial in understanding the behavior of an individual by studying his or her mental function (Rathus, 2012).
The affective theory is applied when studying the reaction of an individual given the instinctual aspect of a person. The affective theory mostly applies before the cognitive aspect of an individual. An individual reaction to a given stimulus is always different among different people and thus the reaction can be spontaneous and thus an instinctive reaction may result. It can result from an involuntary action by the individual where fewer emotions are inhibited and thus are an instinct of the individual to react to a given situation differently. This is geared towards understanding the sub conscious mind of an individual and how it affects certain aspects in the life of the individual. The theory is used to help understand clearly the human capability to react and behave in a certain way when confronted by a certain situation that requires a quick response and action. It’s an understanding of the capability of human beings ability to change and exhibit unlimited growth. Psychologists normally use affective theory to explain the different change in behavior of a human being over time due to changing adapting to nature, place and thought as one grows. The personality of an individual is always changing as one goes through the different stages in life and thus different behaviors can be observed (Rathus, 2012).
Conative theory is more related to motivation of an individual to undertake an exercise and the extent of reward the individual will earn. Different people are motivated by different things and thus their behavior is more likely to change when such motivational factors are facilitated. The behavior or reaction of an individual towards a given stimulus may be affected by the level of motivation provided. Human beings react and are driven by factors that are going to satisfy their needs and are thus driven by the idea of self actualization. Under a normal mental capability an individual will react and behave in the best way that suits to satisfy his or her need as a means of self improvement. Thus the conative theory helps to understand the behavior of human beings and how they are influenced by different motivation factors. The conative theory offers a more and profound understanding of the human nature and how each one of them may behave differently as a way to improving themselves (Rathus, 2012).
Psychology terms and concepts
Psychology as a science possesses various terms and concepts that help psychologist to explain and offer their services to the patients of mental problems. The brain is a very important organ in the life of a human being as it forms the nervous system that controls most of the coordination and behavior. Thus the brain should be well protected from diseases that affect the behavior of the individual. Over the recent times the health sector has undergone major discovery that are geared towards understanding the various roles played by different sections of the brain and how each section controls the activity of the individual. Behavior can be understood to be the reaction made by an organism when faced by different aspects in the environment. The behavior of an individual is mostly outwardly revealed by the individual when faced by a given stimulus. The behavior of an individual is mostly controlled by the nervous and the endocrine systems of the individual. Different people will behave differently when faced with different environments. The human brain is created in a way that it can learn and conceptualize new skills and reactions over time through the aspect of its memory storage. The brain is able to create and store memories that are vital in referring to later and thus crucial in learning (Bernstein, 2012).
Historical trends in psychology
The field of psychology has evolved over the years through the various behavior inhibited by individuals as understood by behavior theories. Psychology was thought to help understand the behavior of people and how they would react to different aspects in their life. Psychology was thought to be behaviorism and thus the behavior of individuals was thought to be a radical reaction to any given stimulus. Later psychologists have applied the human brain to understand the behavior of people and this is backed by scientific facts that help understand the thinking and the behavior of individuals. Psychologists over time have been able to use modern information to understand the behavior of individuals and learn how to use the information in guiding those who may have mental problems. They field of psychology has been undergone immense improvement on how psychologists undertake their operations and the effectiveness they have on patients. They have been able to bring about the human aspect of individuals and the choices they make in executing decisions and thus a clear understanding of the complex human nature (Franklin, 1982).
Contribution of psychology
Psychology has been crucial in understanding the behavior of individuals at various group levels in the society. Much advancement has been made concerning the treatment of mental problems cases where patients undergo group therapies under an experienced and competent psychologist. Due to the study of psychology various treatment and diagnosis of diseases like Parkinson’s and the Alzheimer’s disease have been successive. The cure for such disease was not easy in the past but due to the help being offered by psychologists the cure and the diagnosis have been found and thus help a lot of patients who suffer from the diseases. The discipline of psychology has been crucial in understanding the mind and the body of an individual and how it influences the behavior of individuals. The behavior is usually as a result of decision making and thus helps people to tackle mental illnesses that may affect them and ways of relieving stress among people. The study of psychology has been instrumental in understanding the thoughts of individuals in a particular age set and how their behavior is influenced by nature and other environmental factors (Bernstein, 2012).
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