Adolescence is basically the age between childhood and adulthood which is characterized by massive changes. Substantial changes are said to take place in the transitional period which includes emotional, physical and the general outlook of an individual. It has been a bone of contention on the exact scope of years when the stage commences and ends respectively. In the disputed age when adolescent begins, many scholars have stated that adolescence begins at the age of ten and ends at the age of nineteen (Arnett, 2010).
In exploring the aspects of life that affect the self esteem of an adolescence keen analysis is placed on the perceptions on the media which subsequently has tremendous effect on the adolescent’s life. It is in the said media that different teenagers find leisure to have a meaning hence keen concentration will be exercised. The influence of media on teenagers has been ignored but it forms the basis in which a teenagers judge events in life. Emphasis need to be put on the fact that media information more specifically movies are taken to be conclusive information in developing relationships among the teenagers. The most specific example is the prevailing portrayal of girls as mean on movies. Many teen movies have a habit of presenting girls as mean and at the same time having a general view on the notion that females are more social aggressors than males. The effect of such a female dominance role is that it has depicted a gender based stereotype while at the same time having a devastating impact in the way a teenage girl relates with the society. Such characters in movie have had long term negative consequences on the girls self esteem (Arnett, 2010).
Four parenting styles
Parenting is said to be a challenging task and even more tasking when the child is at the period of adolescence. In order to foster positive parenting, it is recommended that a good flow of communication need be initiated between the parent and the teenager. The dangers associated with not paying attention to a teenager is the vulnerability to peer influence and more specifically towards drug abuse. A huge percentage of the drug abuse by teenagers has been attributed to the fact that a good relationship does not exist at home hence the child seeking drugs comfort (Arnett, 2010).
There are numerous forms of parenting and the most outstanding of all is authoritative parenting. At the stage of adolescence, it is advisable for a parent to be authoritative. This type of parenting should not in any way be confused with the authoritarian. Authoritative parenting is a positive, effective parenting style whereby freedom is exercised but with limits which must be adhered to. A teenager will feel independent and this gradually builds his self confidence. This type of parenting is contrasted with the authoritarian one whereby decisions are solely made by the parent without any questioning whatsoever. The child is not allowed to be independent and everything done must be through seeking permission. This parenting style has the worst relationship and can compel the child to seek comfort in drugs (Arnett, 2010).
The other type of parenting is the best friend parenting. The style has been considered ineffective. It is worth noting that such a parent will try to be extra good with the teenager but a moment which requires the forming of a limit can not be avoided. In this type of parenting the motive is to establish a good relationship but sometimes misguided. For instance, in best friend parent may buy alcohol to their children. Lastly, a parent may choose to lead by example. This is initiated through doing the things that one wants the child to follow. At the same time the parent strives to build a good relationship with the teenager (Arnett, 2010).
Support that friends may provide to each other in adolescence
Shift from reliance on parents is experienced in adolescence stage whereby much of the consultation is done to the peers. Much influence said to be exerted by fellow peers .The onset of puberty is fundamental transition whereby teenagers feel like adults and try to be independent in their perception towards life. In many instances such relationships are mistaken to have a negative effect but there are instances whereby the relationship is healthy and of great benefit to the teenager. First, through peer groups a teenager is taught to view life in a wide perspective as being all inclusive. Secondly, the peer groups make a teenager learn to respect others and what they stand for. Thirdly, a teenager is taught to stand his/her ground. This happens in instances that even if the fellow peers take alcohol the teenager learns to choose not to get involved in the same practices. Lastly, the peer positive influence makes a teenager be independent which prepares him/her to adulthood (Arnett, 2010).
Predictors of suicide among adolescents
There are four main predicators which can lead to a teenager choosing to end his /her life. The first indication is storm and stress which has numerous difficulties in the period of adolescence. The concept entails conflict with parents. Secondly, the conflict may lead to the inference that the teenager is not loved hence committing suicide. Thirdly, the high emotions leading to mood swings eventually occasions depression which can lead to suicide. Fourthly, teenagers have a habit of taking part in risky behaviors which are extremely reckless which can potentially cause death (Arnett, 2010).
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