With the development of society, globalization changes the business framework through most countries, which lead to a significant increase in multicultural business. However, cross-culture misunderstanding could bring barriers between Multinational Companies. Therefore, international management competence plays a primary role through international business.
In my view, as my ideal job is become a manager in international business company, so cross- culture management competence account for important role for my further career development. In addition, due to my major is international business management, so I could learn some international management theories, based on these theories, I will more clearly to evaluate my personal characters and find how to improve myself in the further. Therefore, this assignment will focus on self-evaluation with relative theory through international business competence, such as culture intelligence skills, communication skills, negotiations skills, teamwork skills and leadership skills in the first part. After that, I will make a six months development plan within SMART strategy (specific, measurable, and achievable and realistic targets) to develop my negotiation skills and leadership skills in the next six months. (Appendix 1)
Self Evaluation of International management competence.
2.1 Culture intelligence skills
Culture intelligence means the ability to interpret people’s unfamiliar ambiguous and gestures so as to find the demand of people. Culture intelligence skills still refer three major aspects. The first one is people could understand and adopt the mores and even the body language of an unfamiliar host. In addition, people could make the head, body and heart work together. Moreover, people require showing their foreigner hosts that they understand their culture and use some similar actions to prove that you have entered their world. (Shmueli and Warfield, 2009).
As I had gain some relative sources during the class and finished the culture intelligence, which could help to evaluate my culture intelligence skills through Cognitive CQ, Physical CQ and Emotional CQ. First of all, I realize I have high Cognitive, Physical and Emotional CQ. (Browy and Price, 2011). More specifically, for the Cognitive CQ, I need to make a detail plan before I am going to meet people from different culture. In addition, I always consider some emergency and some solutions when I enter into a new culture and ask myself what I want to achieve it. For the Physical CQ, I can easy to change my body language to suit people from different culture. For example, as my neighbor is some traditional British senior citizen, so sometimes they kiss me as they enjoy my performance, so I return a kiss back to them, although it is an extraordinary behavior in China. In addition, I can modify my speech styles and connect my body, eye and heart work together to tackle problems. For instance, when I communicate with rigorous German people, I require paying more attention for my words, if I found their expression looks unhappy, I will change my speech style to another way so as to gain their satisfaction. For the Emotional CQ, I strong believe I have ability to deal with people from different culture, as I finished my Bachelor’s degree in England, so I have confidence that I can deal well with people from different culture. In addition, I think if I want manage a prefect team, I need to understand and adapt to connect with people from different lifestyles and culture. After I evaluate my culture intelligence skill, I realize as my education background and professional knowledge help me gain some basic culture intelligence skills. However, if I want to become a successful manager, still need to improve some other skills in the future.
2.2 Cross culture communication skills
As the increase number of multinational business, so communications across cultures become more important for global business. (Shmuel and Warfield, 2009). However, communications across culture require focus on people’s behaviors, such as language (body language), gesture and some more clues (include dress, voice and eye contact) in order to build long-term business relationship. In addition, (Bucker and Erik, 2009) illustrated that culture context had a deeply effect o communication, which divided into two groups (high- context and low context). In high-context cultures, words and word choice become much more important through business communication, because few words can transfer a complex message in an effectively group, so the message is implicit. For example, Japan, Middle East countries and Latin America involve high context cultures. In contrast, in low context group, the communicator needs to direct express their ideas, so the value of a single word is less important and explicit, such as North America, Germany and Switzerland. (Beebe and Masterson, 2009). Moreover, trust plays an important role during the communication process, such as Nordic and China had higher predisposition to trust while Brazil and Turkey include low predisposition to trust. As I had deeply understand the cross culture communication, so next part will use face-to-face communication model to evaluate my personal international management competence. (Bird, 2010).
After I had learnt some communicating skills across culture cross culture, I realize identity culture diversity is very import, which include language (body language), gestures and facial expressions difference. More specially, for the language, I require identify linguistic diversity through different areas, sometimes same language in different country still express opposite meanings, for instance, ‘I don’t know, How long should it take?” in Greek this sentence means I ask for an order while in America means refuse to take the responsibility.(Stiefe and Barth, 2010). In addition, I had deeply understand body language differences in order to forbid misunderstanding when I communicate with other foreign mangers For example, when I communicate with Greek customer, I need to realize the head shake means yes in order to make the communication fluently. Secondly, gestures misunderstanding would cause a serious barrier when I communicate with foreigners. Specifically, when I communicate with French and Dutch partners, I need to use different ways in order to avert conflicts, such as French is fond of use the whole part of their body while Dutch just use one of their arms to emphasize the rhythm of their speech. (Bucker and Erik, 2009). Thirdly, I realize wrong facial expressions sometimes will lead fail when you communicate with different people. For instance, Jacobson (2009) stated that most of time smile means happy expect in Russian (smile in Russian means negative connotation, such as criticism and corruption. Hence, I need to control my facial expressions when I communicate with Russian people, especially for smile. The more important thing is I realized conversation styles are very important during cross- culture communication process, which include high- context and low-context communication styles, so I need to use different ways when I communicate with different groups. For example, for high-context, such as if I communicate with Japanese manager, I need to avoid decision-making in public and use fewer words to illustrate my points. Instead, when I communicate with American manager, I require making frequently decision in public and use direct words to critical some disagree words. For my perspective, as I am a scrupulous and easy going girl, so build trust relationship is not difficult for me. However, for some higher predisposition to trust countries, such as China and Nordic still need make a thorough plan so as to forbid errors.
2.2 Cross culture negotiation skills
After evaluate personal communication ability and competence in international management area, next part will demonstrate cross culture negotiation theory and evaluate my personal ability.
Negotiation means business discussion process through more than one party so as to make a mutually acceptable agreement. (Shmueli and Warfield, 2009). Additionally, investors and alliance partners always play a negotiator during the business process. (Appendix 2) The aim of negotiation devote to gain the maximize advantage through others. (Dimotratrato and Voudouris, 2012). Moreover, for a fluently negotiation process, need to identify the negotiation styles in different groups, which require to consider with communication style, such as Japan, North America and Latin America with different negotiation styles. (Appendix 6). In addition, in order to identify the culture dimension in different countries, Hofstede’s model could help me deeply understand the communication styles in different countries. (Appendix 3) Therefore, after discuss relative theory from “Cross culture negotiation skills “, the following part will use specific examples to evaluate my negotiation ability with foreign countries.
After absorb the basic negotiation theory in international management competence subject, I summarize multiple ways to negotiation with others. For example, Germans could much more thoughtful negotiators because personal rigorous characteristics, so I need to make a thoughtful preparation before negotiations, not only know the basic product price and quality in the German company, but also learn business and credit situation in this company. In addition, as German people pay attention to efficiency and detail, so I need to make a decisive decision through the negotiation process. Meanwhile, in the delivery process, I must pay attentions for details so as to forbid waste time. Furthermore, as German known as ‘contact citizen’, so I need to carefully obey the contract and execute, only in this way can make long business relationship with German. (Browy and Price, 2011). For North American negotiators, I need to express the corresponding ideas and encourage them in order to meet their overwhelming confidence. Moreover, North American people prefer efficiency and real interest, so if I negotiate with them, have to provide specific advantage for them and quick to make decision. For Japanese people, I need to use step- by- step approach to overcome the negotiation barriers. In addition, Japanese prefer hide emotions, so I need to serious observe their customer and make a prosperous negotiation process, such as use group negotiation ways and forbid women join the negotiation process. In a word, as a director, negotiation is an essential part in the future, so I need to avoid conflicts and make a careful plan before each negotiation.(Bucker and Erik, 2009)
2.4 Multi-National Teamwork Skills
King（2008） stated that multi-national teamwork means multinational companies connect talent people in different countries and obtain various advantages through different aspects. The aim of Multi-national teamwork focus on absorbs efficiency information and reduces risk so as to increase the working productivity in a team. (Ogrean and Herciu, 2009). A multi-national teamwork refers nine team roles within Belin’s model.( Appendix) After I finish the self-perception inventory test of Belin’s nine team roles, I found the team builder is the most suitable role for me, which get the highest score through the whole test. (Appendix 5) In addition, as team builder include some similar working function within an international manager, which still require some basic management qualities working in a multinational team, so next part will evaluate my personal teamwork skills.
I believe I am a positive manager to work in a multi-national team. More specifically, if I am a manager work in a multinational team, first of all, I would direct to explain the teamwork operation rules before, which means establish a common teamwork spirit between multinational members. Meanwhile, cross culture members in a group need to face to face more than one times so as to make the multinational teamwork frequently. In addition, I would provide culture training for different roles, such as cross culture communication, how to build trust with partners in multinational business environment. Moreover, I would stress the importance of time, especially the different time concepts in different countries, so this point is particularly important, such as if the meeting start at 10 am, Germans should turn up at 9am while Brazil would start until 11 am.(Puccio and Mance,2010). Furthermore, I will count on the international team members’ openness, which means I contribute to develop interpersonal relations among members so as to improve their sense of responsibility and work efficiency. However, Klein(2007) stated that the most important aspect of multinational teamwork is established trust through different members, which could organize them together and overcome hard project.
2.5 Leadership skills with multi-national team
Leadership skills mean a leadership organizes a group to complete a common goal in a business project. (Joshi and Lazarova, 2005). However, there are six leadership styles, which include coercive leaders, authoritative leaders, affinitive leaders, democratic leaders, and pacesetting leaders, coaching. Different leadership styles include different characters, (Appendix 6) will present the distinction in these different styles. However, culture diversity refers difference leadership style, which could connect with Hofstede’s model, such as high power distance countries with authoritative leadership styles, low power distance with democratic leadership styles.(Browaeys and Price, 2011). Moreover, build trust between each other is easy to lead a multi-national team. Therefore, as I believe I could leader in a multinational team success in an international company, so next part will discuss my personal attribute and tools of leader a multinational team.
As I had learnt from textbook and grasp some knowledge in class, I realize identify the culture diversity is important, which means I need to provide specific training subordinates through the different culture dimension (Hofsetede’s modle), such as time orientation, communication style, personal space. (Pucci and Mance, 2010). Moreover, I got historic experience in the past time, such as work as a leader in a multi-national group to complete a presentation task, which becomes a positive experience to increase my leader efficiency when I work a multinational team. In addition, I will create a core company spirit in a multinational team, which could encourage my subordinates and help them pay more attention on their job. Meanwhile, as a leader in a multinational team, I need to make a strict plan to limit the employees’ behavior, such as use growth bonus and deferred pay as prize and punishment. Furthermore, I need to create a harmonious surrounding in a multinational team so as to increase trust between each other, such as create staff party and staff meals, which could establish a long-term employee loyalty for me. Meanwhile, as a leader, I need to give some useful suggestions to new staffs and increase the overall effectiveness. In a word, leader plays a core role in a multinational team, so require keep enthusiasm and inspire employees’ confidence.
A development plan for next six month
After I evaluate my personal competence of communication, negotiation, multinational teamwork and leadership skills in international management areas, I will make a six months plan to develop these two skills-negotiation and leadership. So why I have not chosen communication and multinational teamwork skills, the reason is following. More specifically, as I had stayed in England for more than two years, so grasp communication and multinational teamwork skills through cooperate with local students. In addition, this education background still helps me improve my CQ. However, as I am a full- time student in international business management, so I don’t have enough time to practice negotiation and leadership skills and develop my negotiation and leadership skills. Therefore, I need to make a SMART plan to develop my negotiation and leadership skills, which contains specific, measurable, achievable and realistic target. (Appendix 1) will illustrate the specific explanations.
More specifically, in order to make the plan smart, I will spread negotiation and leadership improvement in two different stages so as to make the plan timely and achievable, which means I will focus on implement negotiation skills plan in the first two weeks of each month and next two weeks for leadership skills improvement plan. In addition, as real practice is important, so I create a virtual negotiation scenario and leadership to test myself absorb some experience. However, in order to achieve a realistic target, I will use some detail plan for negotiation and leadership skills to implement it in next six month, the following table 3.1 and 3.2 will illustrate the development plan of negotiation and leadership skills and how to measure these plan.
3.1. Negotiation Skills
Table 1.1 Six months plan of negotiation
Expand negotiation skills through reading.
Read watching some negotiation video.
Summarize experience through reading or asking successful negotiators
Practice my language skills and basic negotiation ability
Simulating a real negotiation.
Based on simulated negotiation and sum up experience.
As I had gained some correlative theory about negotiation skills from the academic books and tutors, such as based on culture diversity and culture context to create different negotiation styles. (Appendix 6). However, these negotiation skills are not fit for anywhere. In another words, the user need to careful choose negotiation skills. Therefore, in order to accurate using negotiation skills in the further, I will expand the negotiation studying and make a six-month plans to develop my negotiation skills. Table 1.1 can be clearly illustrated the six month development plan of negotiation and some explanations will follow.
More specifically, I extend the first month as reading month within the six months plan, which means I will use Google Scholar to find some specific successful negotiation and failed negotiation cases so as to find some important aspects for me to concern during the negotiation process. In the second month, I will watch some negotiation video. According these videos, I have to study how to keep maintain a stable mentality and clearly expression during the negotiation process. Additionally, I need to pay attentions on negotiators’ eye contact, language and gestures so as to style how to negotiate with others. In the third month, I will summarize some key points from the expand reading and negotiation video. Moreover, summarize experience is not enough, still need to ask successful negotiators. However, as my father is a successful partner, so I need to ask my father and gain some advices from him. Language is important for negotiators, although you have prefect negotiation ability, but if you cannot express your ideas, all of your efforts become naught. As English is official language, so I need to improve my English skills. However, due to I had studied in England more than 2 years, so I gain some experience of studying English, such as listening BBC news and speaking more in your daily life. Above all, pronunciation is very important for negotiators, so I require concentrating on pronunciation in order to forbid misunderstanding. After the first four months’ preparation, I will simulate a real negotiation in the fifth month. By reason of my major (international business management) refers different countries’ students, so establish a negotiation across cultures is not difficult. In the last month, I could base on the simulated negotiation and sum up experience, which could help my future career development.
However, measuring if this plan is success, I require finish at least reading three cases in the first month and carefully watching more than two videos in the next month. In addition, studying correct using negotiation skills in the third month and improve my language skills in the next month. As a result, if the was success complete the virtual negotiation process, this plan will be success. If I fail, still some aspects need to improve.
3.2 Leadership Skills
1.2 Six-month plan for Leadership skills
Read some successful leadership case and sum up experience
Practice language expression ability
Join real group activities and become a leader
Practice Communication and Decision- making skills and problem-solving skills
Create a virtual project and lead some members to finish it
Summarize the experience through the group activity
After I had learned six leadership styles (coercive leaders, authoritative leaders, affinitive leaders, democratic leaders, and pacesetting leaders, coaching) (Appendix 7), I deeply understand different leadership styles suit for different multinational team. However, I realize professional knowledge is not enough to become a high productivity leader, I need to create more practice exercise, so this part I will demonstrate a specific six-month- plan to improve my leadership skills. Table 1.2 and following explanations will show what I should do during the six-month period.
In the first month, I will read some successful leadership cases. For instance, L’Oreal based on motivate employees so as to improve work efficiency and Motorola according to employees’ opinion to make a business plan so as to reduce conflicts. In the second month, I will practice my language expression ability, which include language logical, voice and pronunciation. Therefore, I have to communicate with experienced people and based on basic presentation skills to improve these areas. In the third week, I will join some university activities and strive for a leader during these actives, such as group presentation, fresh party. As I had joined group activities, so this two week is a prefect time to sum up my experience so as to improve my communication, decision-making and problem-solving skills, such as how to communicate with staffs so as to improve team cohesion and reduce conflicts, how to make a correct decision for a short time and how to use productivity ways to tackle problems when facing emergency. In the fifth, I will create a real business project, such as a chocolate holiday market plan, I will find six people to help me to finish it and try to achieve it in next year Christmas or Easter Holiday. In the last month, I will based on previous five months experience and sum up individual leadership style, which may use in the future.
However, measuring if I was success finish this plan, I need to use list some specific requirements for me. First of all, I need to read at least 5 cases of successful leadership. In addition, I need to speak English fluently and make the team productivity so as to finish the task quickly. However, if I can lead a success team in a project, I will almost finish this plan, if I make the team mess chaotic, still need to sum up experience and improve it.
In a word, if I want improve a step within my negotiation and leadership skills, every parts of this plan require strict process enforcement it, only in this way can achieve my targets at the end of six months.
As a result, this assignment devotes to demonstrate self-evaluation relative some theories, tools and framework in the first part, which include communication skills, negotiation skills, multi-national teamwork skills and leadership skills. After that, I make a six-month plan to develop my negotiation and leadership skills so as to improve my overall ability. Consequently, international management competence is important for my further career, just six -month development plans is not enough, still need a long term plan so as to gain develop myself.
Self Evaluation and Development Plan
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