When writing the summary there are three main requirements: 1. The summary should cover the original as a whole. 2. The material should be presented in a neutral fashion. 3. The summary should be a condensed version of the material, presented in your own words Basic Requirements for Assignments: All papers submitted must meet the following requirements concerning margins, line spacing, font size, cover page format, and format. Papers written for this course are to follow the standard page format. That is, papers are to have one inch margins on both the left and right sides and the top and bottom of the page. Papers are to be double-spaced. Acceptable font sizes are 10-12 characters per inch Times New Roman. Papers must include a cover page indicating the title of the paper, the name(s) and student number(s) of the author(s), my name (spelled correctly), the course number and the date. Papers should also include a word count on the last page of the written portion of the assignment (i.e. before end notes, if any). Finally, papers are to be in Word (A) Seminar Papers: The papers should be two-three pages in length (500-750 words). There are two types of seminar papers: (i) analysis: In this form of writing, you should analyse an interesting or significant point raised in the reading(s). The purpose of the papers is to analyze the content of the reading, not repeat what the author(s) has written; the papers are analytical in form, not descriptive. The paper should not be a restatement of the reading(s) but rather an analysis of a relevant issue or argument put forward by the author(s). Remember I have read the readings and am familiar with the content. When preparing the seminar papers, you should keep in mind the following questions: (a) What is the main argument? (b) What evidence is provided to support the thesis? (c) Is the evidence provided convincing? Is it connected with the thesis? (d) What, if any, underlying assumptions guide the analysis? (e) Does my paper go beyond description or reiteration of the reading? (f) What is the thesis statement in my seminar paper? Is it clear? Is it supported?
TOPIC Transnational corporations from developing countries All companies that import or export are engaging in ansnational economic activities. If they lobby foreign zovemments about trade, they become transnational political actors. However, they are not known as transnational companies (TNCs) until they have branches or subsidiaries outside their home country. In 2011, among the 100 TNCs with the highest levels of assets outside their home country, sixty-one were from foureen Western European countries, twenty-two.from the USA, four with dual headquarters in Western countries, six from Japan, and one each from Brazil, Canada, China, Israel, Malaya, Mexico, and Hong Kong. Only developed countries, East and South East Asia, a few Latin American countries, a few Middle Eastern oil producers, India, and South Africa host large TNCs. evertheless, there are now transnational companies based in as many as 147UN member countries, including ninety-four developing countries hosting the headquarters for at least one TNC, and fifty-three hosting ten or more TNCs (see Box 21.1). Increasingly, transnationals are not clearly based in a single country. For example, the world’s biggest steel company, Arcelor-Mittal, has its legal headquarters in Luxembourg, is run from London, and was created by an Indian takeover of Spanish and French steel producers (source: UNCTAD 2012). Financial flows and loss of sovereignty The consequences of the extensive transnationalization of major companies are profound. It is no longer possible to regard each country as having its own separate economy. Two of the most fundamental attributes of sovereignty, control over the currency and control over foreign trade, have been diminished substantially. These two factors mean that governments have lost control of financial flows. Successive financial crises in the 1980s and 1990s established that governments are helpless against banks and speculators. From 2007 onwards, during the global credit crunch, the combined might of the G20 . Triangulation of trade and loss of Sovereignty Governments have great difficulty regulating international transactions. Even the US administration was unable to prevent its citizens visiting communist Cuba during the cold war. It may be possible to prevent the direct import or export of goods. However, there is no guaranteed method of preventing indirect trade from one country to another. This is known as triangulation. Only if a UN Security Council resolution obliges all the countries of the world to impose sanctions is there a reasonable prospect of a determined government preventing TNCs from evading sanctions. However, in such a situation sovereignty over the relevant trade then lies with the Security Council and not with the individual governments. Regulatory arbitrage and loss of sovereignty It is difficult for governments to regulate the commercial activities of companies within their countr+ because companies may choose to engage in regulat arbitrage. If a company objects to one governme policy, it may threaten to limit or close down its I production and increase production in another co try. The government that imposes the least deman health, safety, welfare, or environmental standards offer competitive advantages to less socially respo companies. There is also a strong global trend towar the reduction of corporation taxes. It thus beco difficult for any government to set high stan and maintain taxes. In the case of banking, the cal dangers inherent in the risks of a bank coIl through imprudent or criminal behaviour are so that the major governments first set common standards in 1988, under the Basle Committee These rules were extended, as ‘Basle II’, from cox banking risk to trading risks in 2006. In response global credit crisis of 2007-8, ‘Basle III’ was agreec. 2009-10 to strenzthen the capital rules conside ,;. ion, the application of new rules on liquidity cove will start in 2015, to ensure banks have enough cash. Whatever control is achieved does not repnt the successful exercise of sovereignty over comies: it is the partial surrender of sovereignty to an ‘interergovernmental body.less’
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