T-Test Paper on:
Physical Fitness, present body weight and Eating habits and Human state of health.
The discussion focuses on determining whether there is a correlation between physical fitness, health eating habits and human state of health among different genders. From the empirical studies it can be observed that, unhealthy eating habits and lack of appropriate physical exercises contributes to poor human health. This is because, majority of people do not have the purchasing power to afford a balanced diet. However, the herein may be attributed to ignorance and not necessary low purchasing power. Lack of physical exercises and poor eating habits among people of different gender has contributed significantly increase in obesity and consequently health problems especially in the United States. The study will employ t-test to test both null and alternate hypothesis based on the survey conducted among the students in the class. The test will help to determine whether there is a correlation unhealthy eating habits, lack of physical exercise and human state of health among different genders. The study obtained responses from 36o respondents who were selected using simple random sampling from a sample total of 409 repodents who among the respondents were 158 female (63%) and 93 (37%) male .Surveys questions which were asked were pretested through a pilot study conducted among the students in order to avoid the threat of biasness and irreverence of the questions asked. A comparison of the results obtained pertaining human state of health and human physical exercise as well as eating habits was compared with gender responses among the participants. A conceptual framework was prepared as shown below to indicate the independent and dependent variables used in the survey.
Independent Variable Dependent variable
Gender 1.Level of Physical Fitness
Level of satisfaction with
Present body weight
Consumption of health
A hypothesis refers to a tentative statement that tries to tell whether there is a correlation between the two or more variables. In this study t-test will be applied to test whether there is a correlation between the independent variables and dependent variables. The test will be based on both null hypotheses and alternate hypothesis. When using null hypothesis the statement does not tend to argue negatively or positively and therefore the variables in the statement are equal to one (H0 : B1) =1.On the contrary, alternate hypothesis takes three forms which include: one sided alternate hypothesis denoted as (H1:B1) > 1 or (H1:B1) < 1 and finally, it may can take the form of (H1:B1) ≠ 1, meaning not equal to one. Normally, a null hypothesis is being tested against alternate hypothesis to determine in order to determine the true values. The true values for an alternate hypothesis are greater than one or less than one (H1:B1) >1 or <1. On the contrally, the true values for a null hypothesis is equal to one. From the herein point the theory behind the statics may be computed using the t-test as shown in the formula below: t (B1=1) = (b1-B1/ Se1). Whereby, bi and Se1 are the values of the data which should be placed in the formula above. From this study, below is a summary of both null and alternate hypothesis which may be used to conduct the t- test: Hypothesis 1 Null hypothesis: There is no significance discrepancy among male and female regarding to their level of physical fitness. Alternative Hypothesis: There is a significant difference among males and females regarding their level of physical fitness. Hypothesis 2 Null Hypothesis: There is no significant difference among males and females regarding the level of satisfaction with present body weight Alternative Hypothesis: There is a significant difference among males and females regarding the level of satisfaction with present body weight. Hypothesis 3 Null Hypothesis: There is no significant difference among males and females in their levels of consumption of a healthy diet. Alternative Hypothesis: There is a significant difference among males and females in their levels of consumption of a healthy diet. Figure 1: Dependent variable Variable Independent variables Variable Null Hypothesis(H0) Alternative Hypothesis (Ha) Level of Physical fitness Gender H0:male = female Ha: women men Level of satisfaction with present body fitness Gender H0:males =female Ha:males females Level of consumption of healthy diet Gender H0:males =female Ha:males females Methods: A convenience survey was used as the study design. In this design, respondents consisted of fellow colleagues, family and friends. From a sample of 360 respondents, 158 were female (63%) and 93 (37%) were male. The respondents were selected from a population of 409 using a simple random sampling. The reason for using simple random sampling is because all the participants have equal chances of being selected in a survey. Additionally, the survey design was used because, it allow the researcher to employ standardized questions which allow the data collected from different genders and groups to be analyzed comparatively therefore, this promote reliability and helps to eliminate subjectivity of the observer. However, it is important to note that there existed error in several sources within sample of questions that included the respondent’s profile as well as the probability of a general population not being the representative of the survey’s results. Independent variable was obtained as a result of one question which asked the respondent to reveal their gender whether woman or man. On the contrally, dependent variables were obtained as a result of numerical measurement that ranged from 1-10 in providing the agreement level of statements that were reflected in every question. 1= no to 10= yes. The formula below was also applied to test the hypothesis herein stated. t (B1=1) = (b1-B1/ Se1) After the t- values have been computed, a confidence interval will be computed in order to determine the whether to reject or accept a null or alternate hypothesis. This may be done by using the p-values to determine whether the discrepancy between the hypotheses being tested in this study is statistically significant. The p-values will be determined using the spreadsheet or the SPSS. Whereby, if p-values are less than 0.05 the null hypothesis is rejected and alternate hypothesis is accepted. Figure 2 Gender distribution in the class survey A pier chart showing the herein. Statistical Analysis: Spread sheet was used in order to compute and interprate independent t-test from the survey’s data whereby, the p-value. Additionally, inferential statistics was applied in order to determine the validity and reliability of the null hypothesis. The level of error as well as its significance was based on computation of significance level which was equal to a p-value of 0.05. Therefore the null hypothesis may be rejected if it the p-values are less than 0.05. Results: The eating habits were considered to be a strong determinant when it comes to human state of health. This is because the kind of food that human beings take determines whether their bodies will be strong enough to fight against ailments. The survey helped to discoverer that Male gender have very poor eating habits. It was realized that men takes food that put their life to danger of being attacked by heart diseases such as drinking, smoking. On the contrary, it was discovered that, women also have poor eating habits which has attributed to excessive body weight. However, there level of unhealthy eating habits was substantially low as compared to male gender. Survey questions were asked on a 1-10 scale (1=no to 10=yes) in order to determine the level of healthy eating habits among different gender. The mean response of the women respondents was 4.445. The frequent response (mode) was 6. Figure 3 and 4 shows the mean and mode for the women respondents. The mean response for men respondents was 7.340 while the frequent response was 9, on the basis of numerical scale which was 1-10. Figure 5 and 6 represents this. Figure 3 Descriptive statistics for women level of healthy eating habit Mean 4.445 Standard Error 0.190391 Median 5 Mode 6 Standard Deviation 3.367183 Sample Variance 7.723234 Skewness -0.0239 Range 8 Minimum 1 Maximum 10 Sum 876 Count 169 Figure 4 Histogram for women response on level of healthy eating habits Women response to the level of healthy eating habits 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Level of physical fitness 1 to 10 scale 1 = no; 10= yes Figure 5 Descriptive statistics for men level of healthy eating habits Mean 7.340108 Standard Error 0.236559 Median 7 Mode 9 Standard Deviation 2.281294 Sample Variance 5.204301 Kurtosis -0.24191 Skewness -0.4914 Range 9 Minimum 1 Maximum 10 Sum 598 Count 9 Figure 6 Histogram for men response on level of healthy eating habits Men response to the level of physical fitness 25 20 21 15 11 11 16 10 6 6 6 9 5 3 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Level of physical fitness on 1 to 10 scale 1=no; 10= yes Based on figure 7 which illustrates independent sample t-test, average men response was 7.340 while the average mean for female was 4.445. This indicates that the male respondents on this survey have a higher level of healthy eating habits as compared to that of women respondents. The figure also shows that, P (t<=t) two tails which is 0.00429 is comparatively less compared to designated significance level which had an original value of 0.05. This means that it is most likely for the alternative hypothesis to be rejected. It concludes that null hypothesis is acceptable since it states that there exists a significant difference among women and men in regards to their level of healthy eating habits. Figure 7: statistics on the level of healthy eating habits Male female Mean 7.34072 4.445607 Variance 5.20363 5.72279102 Observations 91 169 Pooled Variance Hypothesized Mean Difference 5.583173 0 Df 249 t Stat 2.042507 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.020578 t Critical one-tail 1.650997 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.00398 Level of satisfaction with present body weight The quality of life and eating habits determines the present body weight in everyday life. Excessive body weight may lead to stress which might cause physical as well as emotional health. On the other hand, excessively lower body weight may increase the probability of being attacked by diseases because low body mass index (BMI). In carrying out this survey, it was found out that, majority of women unhappy and unsatisfied with their present body weight as compared to men. Some respondents gave us the reasons which contributed to their lack of satisfaction with the present body weight. They included poor eating habits among women who tend to consume food with excessive fat and junk food. Connectively, some respondents argued that, increase in body size may be attributed to genetic inheritance among families. The participants were requested to rate their satisfaction level of their present body weight on numerical scale ranging from 1 to 10. 1=no to 10 yes. The mean response from the men respondents was 5.689 while the mean response from women respondents was 4.887. For men respondents, the frequent was 4 which indicated a neutral response for the satisfaction of their body weight and for the women respondents, the frequent response was 1. This indicated that women respondent were not satisfied with their present body weight. Figure 8 and 9 summarizes this data for men and women respondents. Figure 8: Descriptive statistics for men respondent on their present body weight satisfaction Male Response- present body weight Satisfaction Mean 5.688972 Standard Error 0.304546 Median 5 Mode 4 Standard Deviation 2.972123 Sample Variance 8.738663 Kurtosis -1.17116 Skewness 0.074784 Range 9 Minimum 1 Maximum 10 Sum 529 Count 91 Figure 9: Descriptive statistics for women respondents on satisfaction with their present body Mean 4.887076 Standard Error 0.239422 Median 5 Mode 1 Standard Deviation 3.002475 Sample Variance 9.06002 Kurtosis -1.23 Skewness 0.1742371 Range 9 Minimum 1 Maximum 10 Sum 772 Count 169 Figure 10: Histogram for men response on satisfaction with their present body weight Histogram for men response on satisfaction with their present body weight 20 18 15 13 15 10 10 7 10 5 4.5 9 4 3.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Men response on scale 1 to 10; 1=no; 10=yes Figure 11: Histogram for women response on satisfaction of their present body weight 40 34 35 25 24 20 17 15 13 12 13 12 10 11 13 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Response of women respondent on scale of 1 to 10, 1-o: 10= yes Independent samples t-test that is shown in figure 12 indicates that 5. 689 was the average response for male respondents while the average response for female respondents was 4. 887. Therefore this results show that men were satisfied with their present body weight as compared to women. The result of P (t<=t) is 0.0421which is less than designated significance level which was at original value of 0.05. Therefore, the alternative hypothesis is likely to be rejected while the null hypothesis is proven right since it states that there exists a significance difference among women and men in regards to the level of satisfaction with their body weight satisfaction. Figure 12: T-test results for present satisfaction level of satisfaction with regard to body weight among male and female. Male Female Mean 5.689172 4.887076 Variance 8.738663 9.057002 Observations 91 169 Pooled Variance Hypothesized Mean Difference 8.789383 1 Df 249 t Stat 2.052607 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.020478 t Critical one-tail 1.66787 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.040156 T Critical two-tail 1.869528 Level of Physical fitness Physical fitness is another fundamental aspect of human health. It has been made clear that men have higher level of physical fitness as compared to women. During the survey, it was realized that men carry out physical exercise on regular basis unlike their counterparts do. Additionally, it was observed that, women are usually, unwilling to take physical exercise voluntarily unless forced by circumstances. The average mean response for men respondents was 6.340 while the average response for women respondents was 5.50. The frequent response for men and women respondents was 6. Figure 13 and 14 summarizes the data for men while figure 14 and 15 summarizes data for women. Figure 13 Descriptive statistics for men respondents on their level of physical fitness Mean 6.340108 Median 7 6Mode Standard Deviation 7 2.271284 Sample Variance 5.203341 Range 9 Minimum 1 Maximum 10 Sum 598 Count 91 Figure 14 Descriptive statistics for women respondents on their level of physical fitness Mean 5.5 Median 6 Mode Standard Deviation 7 2.42054543 Sample Variance 5.9067343 Range 9 Minimum 1 Maximum 10 Sum 869 Count 169 Figure 15: Histogram of men respondents on their payment Male response to their level of physical fitness 25 22 20 15.5 15 10.5 10 5.5 5.5 10.5 5.5 9m 5 3 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Men responses on scale of 1 to 10, 1= no: 10=yes Figure 16: Histogram for women response on the level of payment Women response to the level of physical fitness 30 25 24 20 14 24 21 24 10 9 14 5 12 13 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Female responses on the scale of 1-10, 1=no: 10=yes Figure 17: T-test results for level of physical fitness Men Women Mean 6.3401085 5.5 Variance 5.2043011 5.507553212 Observations 91 169 Pooled Variance Hypothesized Mean Difference 5.6387639 3 Df 249 t Stat 2.9846241 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.0014159 t Critical one-tail 1.6408992 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.0030258 T Critical two-tail 1.9695368 Discussion The main purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between the level of physical fit, healthy eating habits and human state of health among different genders. Based on the survey responses it was found that men value physical fitness more than women and that majority of men are physically fit as compared to women. Additionally, based on healthy eating habit majority of men were found that they do not practice healthy eating habits and this has led to increase cases of terminal ailments among men. Therefore, this indicates that there is a significant correlation between healthy eating habits and human state of health. The study also as also influenced by some limitations because, prior survey was a sample of the convenience which was among the people we were usually acquainted with. The survey was not representative of population in general. Some points should have been mentioned in order to understand the anomalies as well as the delineation of the given data. For instance women were not fully cooperative compared to their men counterparts and they failed to clearly specify some questions that were asked. However when it comes to various groups, we are given some insight on people making it easier to gain perspective on variety of topics apart from independent t-test studies. In most cases, seeing why differences exist on different variables has been beneficial. The herein data is vital because it may help health practitioners and the government to put the necessary intervention in place in order to promote the human state of health through encouraging people of all genders to conduct physical exercises and practice healthy eating habits. Figure 18 T-test results summary Dependent Variable Independent Variable Hypothesis Accepted Level of physical fitness Gender Null Hypothesis Accepted– there exist a significant difference among women and men in regards to their level of physical fitness Level healthy eating habits Gender Null Hypothesis– There Exist a significant difference among women and men in regards to their level healthy eating habits Level satisfaction with the present body size Gender Null Hypothesis– there exist a significant difference amongst women and men in regards to satisfaction with present body size.