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Telecommunication Project: Bluetooth

Abstract
The research paper opens with an overview of the historical origin of the word Bluetooth. The study brings out the connection between the name and the Bluetooth functions to create a universal unification of connectivity protocols. The research has highlighted the use of Bluetooth in replacing cables and assisting in energy management and control. The study has focused on using the qualitative method of data analysis whereby different sources have been analyzed, and conclusions reached basing on the data reviewed. The literature reviewed has demonstrated various challenges facing the Bluetooth in the telecommunication Industry. The hurdles of scatter net and security threats are alarming, and they ought to be addressed to enhance the safety of Bluetooth.
 
Introduction
 
The term Bluetooth has a Scandinavian origin. It is based on the Danish story of King Herald I uniting the tribes to form a kingdom. The link between the Kings story and the creation of Bluetooth is that it would achieve the same goal of uniting all the communication protocols. The main aim of Bluetooth in technology is connecting communication protocols to a universal approved standard. The use of Bluetooth in connecting has been widely used today, and tremendous acknowledge of its benefits have been witnessed. The focus on networking and connectivity has made blue tooth more relevant than it was before. The initial ideology behind the development of Bluetooth was geared towards replacing cables in information transmission (Dodd, 2001).
 
Bluetooth is defined as a wireless technological device with the capacity of transmitting data over short distances. It was created by Ericsson in 1994 had its functions highly identified as more secure than cables. The creation of Personal Area Network which is reliable was greatly fostered by the use of Bluetooth. Although the initial purpose was to replace data cables, Bluetooth mainly helped in curbing the problems of synchronization since it is capable of connecting many devices. It is easy to assess different steps that the Bluetooth takes before it becomes ready for sale. It must achieve the universal standards set by Bluetooth Special Interest Group which oversees the marketing of Bluetooth to be in conformity with the patents and copyright specifications. In the same manner with other intellectual property regulations, the Bluetooth makes sure that 16,000member companies are protected against any form of trademark or patents infringement (Anttalainen, 2003).
 
Research Method
 
This research is mainly qualitative in nature. Therefore, it follows that qualitative methods of data handling will be used. Secondary data such as relevant books were used in discussing the topic at hand. The desired conclusions are to be reached based on the information accessed.
 
Literature Review
 
Under the Special Internet Guide umbrella, the Bluetooth is given a specification whereby that is only attained through cooperation with other companies. The specification is for dealing with security issues since Bluetooth is prone to hackers. The specification defines the entire Bluetooth operation from the creation stage to the last step. The specification is extremely lengthy due to the wide topics that it covers. However, without it the master Bluetooth is rendered useless. In other words, it is the entire framework which describes the working of a Bluetooth (Horak, 2007).
 
The only way to enhance computer capability through mobile phones has been by use of Bluetooth. It has made transmission and connectivity so easy and enjoyable. The advantages of adopting a wireless technology have been witnessed in ensuring that Bluetooth serve small gadgets such as mobile phones. The effective use of radio circuit and frequencies in transmission is reliable and provides connectivity up to 10 meters. In its wider application, Bluetooth has a wide coverage of up to 100 meters. The above mentioned features make Bluetooth more trusted and promising. It can easily form an adhoc network which greatly assists in creating a short range of wireless network. The networks enhance the connectivity between the small devices and other external personal devices such as printers and internet access points (Dodd, 2001).
 
There are several methods in which the Bluetooth device has been put to use. First, it allows the mobile phone to be used as any other normal cellular phone. The facilitation is by Bluetooth Wireless so as to achieve direct communication with some other gadget. Secondly, blue tooth has widely been used in situations whereby the user of a phone intends to continue his/her conversation when opening the door of the car or doing something else. The use of Bluetooth has made that possible by making sure that the person using the phone can multitask by simply using the speakers installed at the dashboards of the mobile phone (Horak, 2007).
 
Thirdly, the age of digital camera has been backed up by the creation of Blue tooth. The instant post card in a digital camera is made possible through a data access point which in many instances it is through a mobile phone. Such communications would be rendered impossible if Bluetooth connection was not available. The installation of phones with programmed software that can assist in ordering products have been a great achievement. The process has been widely tried by salespeople, and it has assisted in cutting expenditure and getting more profits. It allows a sales employee to connect to a portable bar reader. When the sale of the product ordered is completed, the salesman needs to scan the barcode and the item sold appears on the screen of the phone. The process would have been long if the salesperson was to make manual transactions. The quality of instant customer feedback is enhanced through the use of Bluetooth. The connectivity of Bluetooth in sales operation serves to assist the customer and the sales person. The sales person is saved the trouble of making orders after every sale since everything is monitored through the phone. Trust is created since customers get instant feedback on the products they intend to buy (Dodd, 2001).
 
Bluetooth has been widely used to replace cables. The replacement was necessary since cables have high power consumption. The main advantage in the said power lowering is based on the notion that Bluetooth encourages transmission of data to take a relative shorter distance. Furthermore, the use of radio communications system follows a wireless path which does not require much power. The installation of Bluetooth in a company may require different companies to adopt wide ranger of configurations (Horak, 2007).
 
Bluetooth has achieved tremendous strides in the telecommunications industry since it has encouraged change from it being software to hardware. It has set the pace for unprecedented productivity in connecting all the mobile devices. Bluetooth applications have been said to work best if they are appropriately placed. The client application is supposed to position in the sense that undue load is reduced, and users are not often annoyed. The effect of not placing the Bluetooth application in the right position may render it ineffective. The recommended distance from one mobile device is supposed to be 20 meters. This obstacle has not been an easier to overcome, and the coverage problem has still formed a major obstacle to the use of Bluetooth (Anttalainen, 2003).
 
Wider coverage of network connectivity is largely the main attraction towards the use of Bluetooth in wireless linking. However, there are numerous challenges associated with Bluetooth. The purpose of Bluetooth can only be realized if those challenges are addressed. In the first place, there is the need to get solutions to configure scatter net. The term has its origin in the Blue tooth adhoc networks. The scatter networks have overtime been a major hurdle hence hindering the usability of Bluetooth. The scatter net formation has lacked a major standardized protocol to address it. The new focus on telecommunication has seen steps taken to deal with the problem. The continued efforts to find a lasting solution to the problem of scatter net have included many key players. Telecommunications industry has largely benefited by using Bluetooth in enhancing sharing of information. The issue of how best to disconnect the piconets so as to connect existing scatter net is supposed to be considered (Dodd, 2001).
 
The connection of Bluetooth requires that the hopping to be in the same sequence. The master and slave devices should be aligned in the sense that they detect each other from the same sequence. The hopping sequence takes about 32 in an arrangement of 79 frequencies. Bluetooth has various terminals that make it function. The 3G terminals are proving to be extra supportive to the Bluetooth connection today. It is certainly clear that the low power advantage of Bluetooth has made it easy for use. The Bluetooth ability to use the bridges to negotiate with the neighboring piconets is very effective.   The Blue tooth manufacturers incorporated the bridge nodes so as to slow transmission. Since the master node is the busiest, it inherently controls all the transmissions that come through it leaving a minimal space for other tasks (Horak, 2007).
 
Blue tooth creation has greatly influenced the management of global energy crisis. The fact that it can use solar energy that is sustainable makes it energy management favorable. Bluetooth relies on the PDA user components that support its functioning by activating the 16 bit code. The easier way of linking it with the micro controller makes it access the information send though by placing it at strategic places. The functional principle of Bluetooth system is based on the Palm. The palm guides, creates, and links the specification guide. The numerous hands free devices make the functions of Bluetooth effective by making links to the guide at a point when it has reached a full range (Anttalainen, 2003).
 
Bluetooth is attractive and cost friendly compare to the use of cables. Essentially, cables tend to be expensive due to the cost incurred due their installation and the energy they consume while transmitting information. The processes of connecting, plugging, and installing have been rendered invalid by the use of Bluetooth whereby devices communicate by picking signals. This is enabled by the use of ubiquitous standardized communications system which makes the link between the devices reliable. The system does not require the user to switch on his/her phone. The link is established by getting an automatic Web browser appearance on the screen which makes the user aware of having been connected to the surfer (Dodd, 2001).
 
`           Bluetooth has served its use due to the use of the radio frequency technology. The connection of portable devices was the initial strategy behind its creation and replacement of cables objective. The way people are interacting with information today has been substantially revolutionized. This has been built on the Personal Area Network which has enhanced wireless network connectivity. The old notions of connectivity have lost their meaning in the age of Bluetooth. The connection of portable mobile gadgets to transmit information in short distances using less power without any cable is a novel step in the technological growth. The connection of the internet has been taken to a greater level whereby many devices can rely on a single Internet Service Provider (Anttalainen, 2003).
 
The specification of Bluetooth has been the working framework of blue tooth that started in 1999. The specification was a defining moment to the study of accessories of phones. The study on the Blue tooth specification and other accessories embarked on establishing the use of radio frequency links in supporting its working. The advantage of radio links in comparison to the cables is that it is not directional. In addition, since it uses the infra red links between handsets and other devices, the line of sight is not necessary (Horak, 2007).
 
The study was a success, and the results were the birth of the Blue tooth specification technology. Naming of the specification was done whereby Harald Blatand was the name given to the specification. The creation of the Specification proved that the device was capable of operating in noisy radio frequency unfavorable environments. To make the change robust and communication reliable, Bluetooth is centered on hopping. The avoidance of interference is enhanced through hopping which is done before and after transmitting and receiving a packet. Bluetooth has become well suited to meet the task due to its ability to hop faster than other systems. Its strength is based on the fact that fast hooping coupled with shorter packets, which minimizes the effects of microwave ovens and other foreseeable disturbances. The short distance transmission enjoys the support of Forward Error connection which reduces noise during the time of transmission (Horak, 2007).
 
The baseband protocol of Bluetooth contains the circuit and packet switching. It also has slots which are preserved to be used for any form of synchronous packets and the said hopping happens in the frequency transmitted. The working of the packets is designed to take a single slot. However, in some situations, it can be extended to take up five slots or more. The synchronizing of the voice channels maintains a consistency of more than three synchronizing voice channels. Its development ensures that it supports asynchronous data while at the same time holding the synchronous data (Dodd, 2001).
 
The power levels of Bluetooth have two power levels which are joined and their functional nature well defined. The two levels are distinct in their functions though joined together in the same device. A lower power level covers the lower power level which majors on the shorter personal level within a given room. On the other hand, a higher level power is used in maintaining coverage within the medium range of the network that may include a home. The communications with the varied coverage are facilitated by the installation of software built in each microchip which ensures that the units in it are preset (Anttalainen, 2003).
 
Bluetooth has been highly acknowledged has illustrated by its ability to save power. The fact that the device can stay in power hold mode is very helpful in saving power. The ACL link enhances that function when placed between two Bluetooth devices whereby it can stay in hold mode for a reasonable time while saving power. The change in transmission at this mode is witnessed whereby the ACL packets do not transmit any information from the master code. The following function is only applicable when there is no need to transmit information for a long time. The transmitter in such a case can also be switched off so as to reduce power use. At a point whereby the connection of the Bluetooth is required, the transceiver may be switched off to assist in discovering a device by the Bluetooth. Similar disconnection is used when joining other Pico nets. The data messages send through the devices is also kept at hold. The device also has the capacity to transmit the message or to leave it (Dodd, 2001).
 
The measurement of the power that goes to the antennae is distinct from the RSSI value since Bluetooth has the dynamic regulation of transmitter power. The RSSI has several differences associated with the increase and the decrease of power in the device. The Bluetooth power transmission is based on the decrease and increase of the output power in one step. The transmitter power in Bluetooth is set such that it is independent of different slave codes. The Bluetooth transmission is to the extent that interference from one slave code can not affect the master’s power transmitter at the same time (Horak, 2007).
 
Audio transmissions are also a very impressive feature of Blue tooth. The transmissions occur between one or more Blue tooth devices connected together. These transmissions do not go through the L2CAP layer, and it is transmitted directly. Direct transmission is enhanced through opening the Bluetooth link and initiating a Straightforward set up between the two Bluetooth devices. The use of Blue tooth would not have been possible without the use of Host Controller interface method which links the Bluetooth hardware devices. In order to access the hardware control status, it contains a command interface to the Baseband controller whereby the manager and hardware status are managed. The command has the control and event registers to have the functions simplified (Anttalainen, 2003).
 
The Link Manager Protocol is highly responsible in linking the set up between two Blue tooth devices. Its main functions are to handle the control of packet sizes used in data transmission. The power saving advantage is supported by the availability of the Link Manager Protocol which deals with the management of power modes. In addition, the Link Management Protocol also controls power consumption and state of Bluetooth piconet. Authentication and encryption has a layer that handles generation and control and encryption keys (Dodd, 2001).
 
Conclusion
 
The literature reviewed has shown that the role of Bluetooth in the new technological age can not go unnoticed. The device has enabled wireless connection within short distances without the use of cables. Blue tooth has helped in the management of global energy by creating a way of saving power. This is achieved through its ability to keep the other gargets using it to be in a power saving mode. The fast transmission of data through the device improves its effectiveness. It remains more popular in the wireless connection of personal networks and the cellular phones use. However, it ought to be remembered that the device deserves high levels of security control since hackers may interfere with information on transmission. In addition, the issue of scatter nets is a prime threat to the working of Blue tooth, and it ought to be addressed..


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