1.1 The Bronze Age
The Bronze Age is a revolutionary period that took place first in Mesopotamia then spread to other cities in the world. Human beings used copper, tin, and clay to create the potter’s wheel, which was the greatest innovation during this period. Other forms of innovations that took place during the Bronze Age include cuneiform writing, weapons, empires, laws, and development of cities. Uruk, a southern city of Mesopotamia, was the originator of the innovations of the Bronze Age. The city was prevalent during that period because numerous humans had settled there because of the fertility of the land. The fertility of Uruk was enhanced by the existence of the town near River Euphrates, which provided the town with household and farming water. The inventions made in Uruk spread to other kingdoms in Mesopotamia, for example, Akkadia and Babylon. The bronze period is, therefore, said to be an era of civilization because humans made use of their intelligence to create tools that made work easier.
This indicates that, the innovation of the early pioneers of the city of Uruk undeniably made Uruk the cradle of sophisticated practices and the greatest city of the Bronze Age.
1.2 Problem Statement
Uruk, the cradle of civilization was a peaceful city where people were governed by laws that were created after the invention of writing. The laws governed trade, agriculture, and social classes in the town during the bronze period. The iron wheel that was discovered in Uruk made the city more favorable than other towns in Mesopotamia. The invention of weapons in Uruk led to the rise of cities such as the Akkadia Kingdom. These inventions indicate that Uruk that is presently Iraq has an enriched history, but it has been forgotten because of the war in the country. The remains of Uruk are presently located in Warqa in Iraq. Today, Warqa is characterized by low population, dry land, and insufficient laws that govern the society. Presently, the war in Iraq has led to the rise of terrorism in the country, which poses insecurity. Terrorism has increased in the country to the extent that militants possess weapons of mass destruction. The world focuses on the war and terrorism in Iraq, and the society tends to forget the rich history of the country. A review of the history of Iraq is essential because it will shift the focus and attitude. The shift will be desirable, and it will help citizens of Iraq to appreciate their history.
To find out whether the innovation of early pioneers led to the sophistication of Uruk.
To find out how Uruk influenced the rest of the Fertile Crescent.
To determine whether Uruk was the greatest city of the Bronze Age.
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Innovations of Uruk
The major innovation that was made in Uruk is the potter’s wheel that has a wedge shape. The Potter’s wheel has four jars and five helms that enable the machine to rotate and move from one place to another. The rotating wheel was made from bronze, a metal that was made by mixing and heating tin and copper. The discovery of the wheel helped the inhabitants of Uruk to save time that they used to move pottery across different regions. The wheel also facilitated trade between Uruk and other cities such as Ur. The two cities traded goods such as ceramics and agricultural products. Before the discovery of the wheel, the communities did not trade, and whenever they did this, traders had to transport goods for extensive distances. This was tiring, and most traders gave up the business. The wheel played a major role of transporting weapons across states, for example, it was used to draw warriors and weapons across the Akkadia Kingdom. The kingdom arose as a result of the invention of the wheel and weapons in Uruk.
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