The distinction of mind and the body
Philosophers hada different view of whether the mind is distinct from the body.Some hold that, the mind and the body are identical while others strongly assert that the mind is distinct from the body. Those who believe that the mind and body are not separate are referred to munist,while those who believe that the mind and the body are distinct are called dualist. There have been controversialarguments of whether the mind and the body are distinct .Some of the supporters of the argument are; Rene Descartes, Aristotle, Pluto, Zombie and many other philosophers. On the contrary, some philosophers like Churchland believe that, mind and body are not distinct. The existence of monist and dualist lead to a rise of a controversial topic of philosophy of mind. The aspect of concern in this philosophy is the correlation between the body and mind. Monist believe that, body and mind are one and the same, having the mind being just an aspect of the body. On the contrary dualist believe that, mind and body are separate either wholly or partially and that, the mind is not equivalent with the brain.However, despite having different believes, both dualism and monist have been criticized. Dualist arguments are criticized for failure to answer how the minds aresupposed to interact if they are distinct. Thisdiscussion therefore,focuses on the arguments for and against the preposition that mind and body are distinct.
Arguments forthe mind and body are distinct
The proponents of this argument are, Rene Descartes.According to Descartes the nature of mind is totally different from that of the body. This argument leads to emergence of the controversial topic on the problem of mind casual interaction. Descartes defend his argument using two folds, the religious motivation and scientific motivation. From a religious point of view, Descartes asserts that, thereis life after death. He supported his argument that, the mind and body are distinct from each otherby arguing that, the decomposition of the body when a person dies does not imply the destruction of the mind and soul. Hence irreligious people will be forced to believe on the prospect that, the mind or soul can exist without the body. Additionally, Descartes used the scientific evidence to support his assertions. From a scientific point of view, Descartes used the thoughts of the late scholastic-Aristotelian Philosophers with a mechanistic explanation based on the concepts of geometrymodels. Theconcept of substantial form as part of the whole world brings the confusion of the idea of the mind and the body. This confusion led people to mistakenly ascribe the properties of knowledge and non-immortal things like stones, plants and even non-human animals. Therefore, destistinction of mind and body eliminate this confusion by showing body moves without the mentality and principles of mental causation. Therefore the nature of mind and body can be substantiated by understanding the geometrical nature of bodies. Descartes further argues that, the mind is not divisible unlike the body which is divisible and hence the mind is separate from the body. Based on this argument, Descartes believe that the mind and the body are distinct. AdditionallyLeibniz’s Law holds that, mental states are not identical with brain state therefore, this law tend to attack the identity thesis that identical things share identical properties.
Arguments against minds and body are distinct
Dualist believes are being criticized for failure to substantiate their assertions with objective evidence and facts. A question of fact a rises that, if the mind is distinct from the body, how does the mind sets the events in motion as we generally think it does?Carruthers criticized the argument that, if minds and body are separatefrom each other, why do we experience pain and have some conscious states and events.Carruthers further asserts that, the mind and the body are not distinct from each other because, only mental state courses the physical state for example, the movement of body from one place to another must incorporate the brain and not just a physical state. Carruthers therefore strongly hold that, only mental states causes physical events such as movement and hence the mind and the body are not distinct as argued by other philosophers. Additionally, Introspection argument criticize the the philosopher believes of having a distinction between the minds and the body by arguing that, human beings and other animals feel pain and have desires because of the existence of mental states.
The philosophers have shown a great discrepancy with respect to whether the mind and the brain are distinct from each other. Dualists are for the argument that the mind and the body are distinct from each other whilemonists are against the argument that, the minds and the body are separate from each other. Philosophers likeDescartes have substantiated there argument by using both religiousmotivation and scientific motivation to support there assertion. However his claims have faced opposition of philosopher likeCarruthers who argues that, physical events can not exist by there own without incorporating the mental events.