THE EVOLUTION OF DESIGN
The redesign process in business is changing the way organizations do business. Information systems are depended on the nature of the tasks that they support. They are also influenced by the operations and administrative functions of an organization. With the changing times, businesses processes are changing such that the end user needs are anticipated to provide quality products at a low cost. Systems usually undergo the initial, primary design process whereby the features are provided before use begins. After implementation, issues arise during interaction which calls for modification and embodiment of the current system to fit the changing processes. Incentives based on information technology and performance can be viewed as substitutes to performance enhancers. However, to effectively complement the information systems, there is a need to redesign the work system by enhancing the technological support, establishing schemes to optimize performance as well as installing effective communication systems (Chen &Hao, 2010). This article will address the design processes while outlining their current and future importance to organizations and even individual information systems.
Redesigning the information system
Secondary design ensures that users are engaged in research, investigation and promotes an interactive system which supports the user. Customization ensures that the products provided are tailor made to satisfy the needs of the targeted market. This requires that the organization has a good information system that comprises of both internal and external sources. This way, the products provided are individually designed for each customer by integrating the needs and allowing flexibility. Open innovation approach focusses on keeping an eye on the ideas which are obtained from outside the organization. This ensures that the organization is assisted in identifying the potential fields which are mostly seen by the customers. The customers may identify this by pointing out what the competitor is doing or expressing the extra expectations based on what the organization has provided currently. Lead user design is useful in determining whether the market will embrace the products sine they represent the general market. Using this form of design brings about significant benefits since it helps in identifying the market needs and offering the solution. It provides users with a real experience and gives accurate information (Chen &Hao, 2010).
One of the aspects of an information system that can be redesigned is the business strategy. Strategy determines the design choices to be put in place for instance the executing activities in the business process simultaneously saves time and resources. Introducing information technology makes this simultaneous running of activities possible. Sharing information between several units avoids the sequence that should be followed and instead makes the whole organization work as a single unit. This saves time, resources and facilitates coordination in running an organization’s activities. The business processes that transform raw materials into products and then deliver them to end users can also be redesigned to simplify the process. The aspect of material production can also be redesigned to ensure that the production process changing according to the market demands. As times change, the market needs change which forces an organization to modify its production process to meet the market demands. Finally, information technology is an aspect that should be redesigned to facilitate building the information system (Herstatt&Hippel, 1991).
In the past, organizations used to identify a business they wish to introduce and then choose the information system that would support the processes involved. Today this has changed to secondary design in which organizations learn good business practices from experience and then incorporate it into their process. This way the business structure influences the information system and determines what should be incorporated in the system. Organizations can capture secondary design by identifying the needs of users through interviews and holding interactive sessions with stakeholders. The feed back obtained from the end users can also be used to identify the market needs and anticipate future needs too. Technology is advancing at a high rate and organizations should focus on continuous research so as to make sure that they keep up with the new trends of their respective industries. Once the organization has identified the information systems and technology required, it identify the compatibility levels between the new concept and the existing processes. It should then engage the human resources to ensure that the proposed ideas are integrated in the information process. Once introduced it is monitored to ensure that it is efficient and effective in terms of productivity, increase the speed of service and cut on costs too (Germonprez, Hovorka& Gal, 2011).
Lead user and secondary design systems are important to an organization’s business processes. This is because they provide rich market research information on whether the new product will achieve demand. Lead users represent the general market which is likely to embrace the product after a given duration of time. During this period, the organization can measure performance and identify the areas that need to be rectified. This way the expected results can be anticipated before the rest of the market can embrace the new product. They also provide the organizational team with experience which influences the ideas and decisions made. When new products are based on past performance, the organization is likely to provide better products that will attract more demand (Herstatt&Hippel 1991).
SDLCs provide users with a step by step cycle that explains why a system must be introduced, provides feasibility for the new project, analyzes the problems, implements and tests the system before delivering it to the end user. They aim at ensuring that the new system is analyzed to ensure that any problems are solved before it reaches the consumer. Similarly, the lead product follows the same procedure by involving a small portion of the targeted market which consists of the lead users. In this case, research is carried out to identify the issues that come up so that they can be solved before the rest of the market can begin consuming the product. The two design systems are used to measure the relevance of a new idea; they measure the efficiency based on the results obtained from the test sample (Sharma, 2011).
Collaboration systems are designed to unite the people who are involved in the business processes. They help them to develop multi user programs whereby different units can use a similar program to perform different tasks. It enhances coordination and communication between the various units in the organization. They can be used as effective tools for secondary design. This is meant to ensure that employees can communicate, and share ideas and suggestions, which can be included in the system. When this system is put in place, costs are cut down, and decision making can be facilitated, and modifications done in the organization since it unites the organization to become a single unit. They provide an interactive session for users to share ideas and suggestions based on their experience. In organizations where there is no managerial hierarchical structure, collaboration systems work best since it provides a platform for users to apply innovation and are not inhibited by power (Grosz, 1996).
The redesigning process can not be applied on the issue of business concept. This is because most of the organization’s units are cross functional although they are analyzed and designed as complete and self reliant. They require coordination and communication and this call for a central processing point. The models used in the business processes are circular which means that they will always need a similar model. They can not be easily redesigned without changing the entire functioning of the organization, and this may not be effective in the long run. For instance, automation of inefficient processes helps an organization to improve production speed, but it does not change the initial idea of the process. Concepts can only be improved to produce results faster but cannot be changed (Chen &Hao, 2010).
Business processes and information systems are interdependent. When an organization is analyzing its process, it is inevitable to consider the information systems and the technology involved in those processes. Similarly, when an organization is developing a new information system or technology, it has to consider its business processes to ensure that the new technology can be accommodated by the current processes. Integrating many design systems in an organization promotes efficiency and effectiveness. A lot of costs are also saved because the organization can integrate its process and allow its users to work as one unit from different locations..
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