The beginning of a civilian military.
Establishment of a common defense
Moving towards a nationalized military.
The beginning of the modern total warfare.
The Beginning of a Military Superpower
World War I: America’s Debut as a Superpower
World War II: Military Golden Age
Cold War: Nuclear Deterrence
Persian Gulf War: the computer war and Military redemption
September 11th and the War in Iraq:
The impact of war
In most cases, war is associated with negative impacts to the nations involved. Death risks, economic crisis, sexual harassments, power dictatorships among others are all as a result of war between nations. However, there are cases in which it can be learned that, despite the frequent wars, the result is positive impacts to the nations or states involved. For instance, the United States was suffering from economic depression before it got involved in various wars. However, when the US engaged in warfare, there was a drastic change in the country’s economic fortune. In this case, the economy shot up, and sky rocketed. Thus, jobs were created and at the same time weapons and materials were made available to enhance the security of the country and make it stable. The Americans united as a group, and were ready to do anything that would ensure their security, freedom, and unanimity. Just like how America’s political, economic, and institutional issues projected, the same applied to the American military. Starting from the colonial wars, which marked the beginning of a civilian military all the way to the September 11th attacks and the war in Iraq, the US military has shown development and growth. This paper researches on the development and growth of the US military from its inception all the way to the 21st century. The focus is on the origins and contributions to the war of 1812 and World War 2 towards the development of the United States military and how these concepts shaped the United States Navy.
The beginning of a civilian military
Militaries never existed there before till this time, 1512 and 1774. The wars experienced in this period were as a result of opposition to the colonialist who had arrived in America. The native Americans united, the same case to the colonialists and the Europeans and with no fighting skills conflicted in wars. The English settlers began to develop a civilian militia in each colony that required the provision and maintenance of weapons by the militiamen. The Native Americans were primarily engaged by the militia in several wars. The colonists engaged in the conflict alongside the Europeans at the time when the French army was fighting Indians. However, tense relations amongst the colonies and Britain developed and could not be ignored.
Establishment of a common defense
In this era, a common defense was formed that included, the US Navy, Army and Air Force after gaining of independence. The recruitment of soldiers was increased hence the growth of the military. More weapons were bought, more houses, offices for administrators The Americans were eager to get independendence In the period between 1775 and 1783. Britain underestimated the commitment of colonists to “natural courage, God, Freedom, and posterity”. In addition, Britain did not understand the rules of engaging a sparse population in warfare that was to cover an expansive region. Therefore, Britain never succeeded due to lack of an efficient strategy early in the war. The American military won the battle because they were fighting for independence. They were able to mobilize citizen, soldiers, and non professionals. This led to the establishment of a common defense (Millett & Maslowski, 1995).
Moving towards a nationalized military
The British naval harassment of American shipping was the major cause of this war. The military more especially the navy played a major role in this era, 1753 to 1815 which led to the improvements to the navy and the whole military at large. The scientific engineering was developed in this era. The New Republic faced challenges of surviving on an international stage that was dangerous. In addition, the US was also faced with the challenge of trying to reconcile its liberty ideological concerns with the effectiveness of the military. The state administration was allowed to establish a state militia. Most of the conflict of 1812 was a sea-based. When the war was announced, the American Navy forces were quick to lay an ambush. The American naval won and this led to better funding and the construction of many ships. The force continued to be large, and the navy embarked on the use of technologically advanced steam powered ships, as well as shell guns. This is the time when the American naval power was validated. This was immediately after the US fought a series of wars. At this time, the military was considerably involved with domestic development and expansion. During the Mexican American war, the US navy played major roles that led to capture of California (Chambers, 2006).
The beginning of the modern total warfare
The civil war was fought in the 19th century between 1861 and 1865. At first, many individuals believed that the conflict was going to be swift and short lived. However, the war turned to be a modern total warfare. Individual states could not make it through in the war. Therefore, the military’s power balance was shifted from the states to the national government. This is mainly because it needed large coordination of matters that needed strategies and logistics. The navy initiated combats that were between ironclad ships and new naval mines technologies. The war affected the Southern economy leading to shortages of foods and supplies. This was due to submarine blockades. It was also attributed to disappointments experienced in the Southern railroads. In addition, this was due to rivers losing control. Lastly, it was attributed to the forages of the American armies. By 1864, the living standards of people went on the low due to inflation and currency distrust (Stewart, 2005).
At this era, the US military learned several tactics of war from other countries. The American Indian wars were experienced between 1866 and 1890. They were caused by complex influences on the military of the US. This included the emerging of imperialistic impulses in America, advances in technology within the American military, individual career concerns by the military officers and social Darwinism. The US military gained experience of employing guerilla tactics, which was applied in their future wars. The US navy went on the decline at this period till 1882 when it started to rebuild. Modern ships came into existence, and by the end of the 20th century, the US navy position rose from 12th place to 5th place in the global ranking (Rogin, 1987).
The Beginning of a Military Superpower
This war was experienced in 1898, the time when America began abandoning the continental policy and moved ahead to global trade. America and Spain engaged in warfare after the latter turned down the former’s request to amicably give independence to Cuba. The United States emerged victorious from this war. The US Navy won the external territories belonging to Spain. In twenty years that followed, the military transformed and improved. Thus, before the World War I, the navy was the 2nd in the world ranking. In addition, the American army was fully equipped with air and motor power. The latest technological submarines were innovated and developed, and the naval force was expanded to every port. Politicians and officers of the navy were allowed to board and went for tours together. In addition, many fueling stations were built to be used by the naval ships (Korteweg, 2011).
America’s Debut as a Superpower
In the period between 1917 to 1918, America went to war with Germany and emerged as a superpower. This war is known as the First World War. During this war, a lot of funding was made for the US Navy who went to the war and won it. At this time, the American Navy allowed the female candidates to serve in the military.
World War II, Military Golden Age
The US was forced into war with Japan after the bombing Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. The military gold age was experienced between 1939- 1945. This war is known as the Second World War. In this war, the Japanese army was defeated. In the mid 1940s, there were battles at Lwo Jima and Okinawa. This provoked the United States to use atomic bombs, which were detonated in Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Consequently, this led to the surrender of the Japanese marking the end of the war in the Pacific. All the forces vied to adopt the new technology. This was characterized by the advent of the nuclear weapons.
Cold War, Nuclear Deterrence
Immediately after the World War II, the Soviet Union and the United States were entangled in a battle for supremacy. The Soviet Union and the US were involved in the Cold War though no real war experienced. The US Navy was known for its use of high technologies compared to other US forces. Nuclear technology was integrated in the warfare, and were developed by both the US Navy and the Soviet Navy. The Cold War effectively ended in the early 1990s after the Soviet Union broke up (Rajain, 2005).
Persian Gulf War, the computer war and Military redemption
This war was the most technological war ever experienced in the world. It only took a few days for the American army to take control of Kuwait. This war is commonly known as the Gulf War.
September 11th and the War in Iraq
Weapons of mass destruction hidden by Saddam Hussein and the September 11 terrorist attack led to the US and Great Britain in invading Iraq. They managed to dispose Saddam who was later executed by the new government. Iraq was characterized by poorly developed infrastructure and political instability.
Wars can impact nations both positively and negatively. Notably, the countries at war experience retardation of economic growth due to an economic crisis. Countries strive hard to be in the lead in terms of arming themselves to either attack their opponents or protecting themselves against their opponents. The history of the US military is a very good example of how countries fund huge amounts of money to their militaries. The American war history shows the trends of development and growth of militaries. It also shows how wars have led or instrumented the development and growth of the militaries. This can be seen in the establishment of common defense, as well as the global expansion of the coalition of nations to fighting one nation that goes against their wish. Just like any other project, war also integrates the use of emerging technology, which is critical in determining the winner or loser of the war.
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