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This research paper will describe philosophy and outline the contributions of Aristotle in the field of philosophy.

Philosophy is the critical and systematic analysis of general challenges surrounding humanity such as existence, language, values, mind and reason. It relies on rational argument to describe what may seem to a layman as “the usual”. Philosophy is divided into about thirteen branches. Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that studies existence encompassing all that exists and the nature of the existence itself and tries to answer the question on whether the world is real or an illusion. Epistemology studies the method used by human beings to acquire knowledge and involves the study of concepts, validity of senses and logical reasoning. Ethics deals with the most appropriate course of action for a man. It creates a platform for categorization of human values and how to pursue them. Politics and law (legal) is a human societal framework determining how members of the society act to achieve their social and political goals. Esthetics is the philosophy of arts and its existence throughout human history. It entails what art revolves around and its purpose. Esthetics as a branch of philosophy answers questions on whether this art consists only of literature and music, or it incorporates all that surrounds us including elements of the universe. The philosophy of logic and language study the modes of reasoning, argumentation and how human language interacts with thinking. Philosophy of education studies the role of education in society. Philosophy of history studies progress and impact of history and historiography. The philosophy of mind studies interaction of consciousness and the outside world and the physical body. The philosophy of religion is a branch dealing with religious history, doctrines, beliefs and arguments. The philosophy of science studies the role and relationship of science with the human society (Landauer & Rowlands, 2011 PP. 1-5).Aristotle is an ancient Greek philosopher (384-322 BCE) who made great contributions to philosophy in particular logic, politics, metaphysics, physics, ethics, agriculture, medicine, biology, mathematics, ethics, theatre and dance. Aristotle developed numerous treatises classified as logic, physical works, psychological works, and natural history. In the field of logic, Aristotle used various words to describe matter in terms of quantity, quality, action, substance, situation, relation, passion, time and condition. According to him, these are components that any one would use to gain knowledge of an object of interest. It takes a combination of ideas to determine truth and falsehood of a situation. Rational speech and thought results from a build up of words to have the ability to create a sensible meaning as a whole. Demonstrative forms of thought are the only ones considered as logic. Logic as proposed by Aristotle is the platform on which propositions are classified as either true or false and t his also depends on the facts presented at the moment. His logic argument is a syllogism which dominated philosophy for two thousand years until it was challenged by Russell with his predicate logic propositions (Turner, 1907,Pp 1-3).In metaphysics, Aristotle deals with the principles of science and the basis of existence. This looks at existence and the fundamental elements of existence. He claims that there exist some universal truths. By describing the science of a being, Aristotle seeks to know what is meant by true substance. He argued that the real form of being is within the object and occurs in the wide ranging phenomena of sense. Metaphysics is related to realism and according to him science is a field that encompasses universal concepts with the substance being observed as an individual. Aristotle described matter as the underlying form of transformations such as growth and the eventual decay of the matter (Cohen, 2008.pp.1&2).In the realm of nature, Aristotle observes the universe from the perspective of imagination. He claims that a universe lies between extremes in which one side is formed of matter without form and on the other end form without matter. The matter transforms into form displays itself in different stages in the natural world. This change forms the basis of Aristotle’s philosophy of nature. He opposed the notion that space is same as void. He argues that beings as they exist currently can no longer evolve and are eternally positioned in a permanent format. Living and non living things exist on a scale in which the complex and more organized organisms such as human beings are at the top of the scale while the less complex forms such as plants and other non-living things are at the bottom of this scale (Moravcsik, 1975 pp.629).On soul and psychology, Aristotle described the soul as an expression of a natural body. He, therefore, argued that a link existed between the psychological and physiological components of a being. He claimed that the soul was not a product of the physical components of the body, but as the component of the body that gives life its real meaning. The soul is displayed outwardly in accordance with the development of the physical body component. The mind, on the other hand is a unity of the two components, the soul, and physical body. Aristotle described sense as a perception of interpreting concepts and objects without considering the matter they are formed of. This perception is active, never passive since through it, one can differentiate qualities of outward objects creating an interpretation of the soul and expressed outwardly by the physical body (Shields, 2011, pp.1).Aristotle’s view on ethics differs from the earlier description by Plato. Aristotle argues that ethics is an attempt to pursue goodness and happiness as the final goal as opposed to Plato’s assertion of an existence of natural goodness. True happiness, therefore, is part of an active living by the human being set in the path of actualization and realization that persists throughout one’s lifetime. Ethics according to Aristotle is distinctively human since only they have rational elements. Moral virtues, he explains, are the ability by individuals to control their desires, and this aspect is acquired through influence from the surrounding or through teaching and learning. A morally upright individual has a perfect insight which in turn creates a good person in him. On the other hand, a morally weak person will go ahead to do the wrong yet he/she knows it is wrong .this type of individual is described as only yielding to desire instead of reason (Kraut, 2012. Pp.1).In his philosophy on politics, Aristotle places it under the ethics bracket seeing it as the ultimate result of an ethical society. Politics requires morality to succeed just as in a personal pursuit of happiness. Since humans are social in nature, they use language to create harmony and social unity. Aristotle states that political administration should be a sincere association guided by morals aimed at realizing advancement of humanity. Politic succeeds when the necessary legislation is governing it is followed. The law which is a component of politics is the expression demonstrated outwardly through moral ideals that are should be at any time influenced by biases biased on personal feelings (Moravcsik, 1975 pp.633).Aristotle also contributed to philosophy in arts and poetics. He described the art as an expression of an idea that originates from within an individual. According to him, man has an element of imitation and likeness and would always want to outwardly express it. Poetry as a form of expression is used to express character. Comedy as expressed in art is an expression of bad deeds of humanity while tragedy is used to express serious issues that have large magnitude impacts. Aristotle also introduced a philosophical approach to biology through a systematic criticism. He made observations in biological aspects such as animal parts, memory and recollection, history of animals, on life and death, respiration, plants, dreams, walking and sleeping among many others (Moravcsik, 1975 pp.635).Conclusion The fields of philosophy as mentioned in this paper vary in explanation and interpretation. Different philosophers have attempted to give their versions of these branches of philosophy. Aristotle remains one of the greatest philosophers of all time with some of his assertions still in use in modern philosophy. He made many transformations to the areas of study he had an interest in. His emphasis on the goodness of mankind and the back up he offered on scientific concepts remain outstanding.

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