Diabetes can be described as a condition in which the body is unable to manufacture or make use of insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced or manufactured by a body organ known as the pancreas. Insulin assists the body to breakdown glucose (a form of sugar) into a form which can be absorbed by body cells easily.
Type 2 diabetes is Australia’s fast-growing chronic disease, yet it can be prevented with the right diet and regular exercise. Whether you have already been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes or are pre-diabetic and hoping to avoid full-blown diabetes, this easy-to-understand book teaches you how to maintain a healthy lifestyle and good blood glucose control so that you can prevent long-term complications and Diabetes is a number of diseases that involve problems with the hormone insulin. While not everyone with type 2 diabetes is overweight, obesity and lack of physical activity are two of the most common causes of this form of diabetes. It is also responsible for nearly 95% of diabetes cases in the United States, according to the CDC. live a full and active life.
Too much glucose (blood sugar) leads to a condition referred to as hyperglycemia. Some of the symptoms associated with hyperglycemia include; impaired or blurred vision, frequent need to urinate, and feeling hungry after a short while, general increase in thirst, some people may experience irritability, numbness of hands and feet, in some cases patients have very dry skin, have wounds that take long to heal and also experience frequent gum, skin and bladder infections (Fasanmade, 2008; Roper, 2006).
There are generally five types of diabetes namely; pre-diabetes, type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes, latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA) maturity –onset diabetes of the young (MODY). For the purpose of this essay we are going to focus on type 2 diabetes (Howard, 2011).
Chronic condition defined and described .
Diabetes type 2 is also referred to as diabetes mellitus. It was formerly referred to non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus NIDDM or adult onset diabetes. This condition is characterized by high blood sugar level with relative insulin deficiency. By relative I mean that the body produces insulin but not to the required quantity that the body needs. This is in contrast to type one in which there is total failure of the pancreas, hence no production of insulin at all. To understand why insulin is important, it helps to know more about how the body uses food for energy. Your body is made up of millions of cells. To make energy, these cells need food in a very simple form. When you eat or drink, much of your food is broken down into a simple sugar called “glucose.” Then, glucose is transported through the bloodstream to the cells of your body where it can be used to provide the energy your body needs for daily activities (Kumar, et al, 2005).
This is the most common form of diabetes which generally affects 80%-90% of all cases of people reported with diabetes. Diabetes Type 2 is commonly associated with the older population but of late there have been more and more cases reported of it occurring in the younger generation, most shocking it is reported to occur in children In a healthy person, the pancreas (an organ behind the stomach) releases insulin to help your body store and use the sugar from the food you eat. Diabetes happens when one of the following occurs (Diabetes Australia, 2011).
In the recent past it was rare to come across children with type 2 diabetes, but of late there has been an increase in the cases reported. It has been reported that more and more young people under the age of 20yrs are being diagnosed with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes (WebMD, LLC, 2012).
Type 2 diabetes is mainly caused by a combination of two factors namely, environmental/lifestyle factors and genetic factors. Environmental factors can be controlled by the individual such as obesity, eating a balanced diet etc. where as genetic factors can not be easily controlled as such. Some of the lifestyle trends that encourage diabetes include lack of physical exercise, poor diet, stress and anxiety (Touma &Pannain, 2011).
Genetic factors include genes which make the individual also known as DNA. This means that if your parents suffered from diabetes then you are at high risk of suffering from the same. In twins it’s noted that if one suffers from diabetes then the other will develop the same complication at a later stage in his life (Gardner, Shoback & Greenspan, 2007).
There are various types of anti diabetes medication available in the market such as metformin, which is usually administered as a first line form of treatment. From research it has been revealed that metformin has no adverse effect on the mortality of the patient. Incase the drug is not effective a second drug may be administered. Precautions should be taken not to administer metformin to persons with kidney or liver failure. It has been noted that many people don’t need insulin but when it is used a long acting formulation is used at night (Waugh et al 2010).
In some cases surgery has been used to control obesity through weight loss surgery. In practice it has not been seen to have adverse effects on mortality of patients who undergo this procedure. Many patients have been noted to be able to maintain low blood sugar levels without medication after going through surgery. However it is recommended that only those individuals who are unable to control their body weight and blood sugar levels, should go through this operation (Dixon, le Roux, Rubino & Zimmet 2012)
Common experiences of those living with the condition discussed
Some of the most common symptoms associated with this form of diabetes include; patients are faced with a constant feeling of hunger and acute thirst; this feels like one can’t get enough of water and food and tends to coincide with urination, its also common for patient to urinate after short periods of time (Vijan, 2010). It’s common for people with diabetes to feel weakness and fatigue in their limbs and body which is caused by lack of glucose in the cells to produce energy (Campbell & Rubin, 2012). Cases of mood swings have also been reported gradual gaining of weight, coupled with feeling dizzy and also frequent headaches (Diabetes Australia, 2011).
Discrimination can also be sighted as an experience of diabetes such as which occurs around the work place. This is due to the symptoms of diabetes which make individuals feel weak due to lack of energy, dizziness due to lack of glucose in the brain cells hence low metabolic rate. People with diabetes also suffer from impaired eyesight and tend to be mocked by their colleagues when they cant be able to make out distant writings(Vijan, 2010).
Beneficial self management activities detailed.
Patients living with diabetes encounter a lot of challenges in their day to day life as they try to manage their blood sugar levels. For one to manage his/her blood sugar levels, he/she must have undergone a complete medical diagnosis from a qualified medical officer so as to understand their condition. Management of type 2 diabetes involves controlling your eating habits, maintaining blood sugar levels in the required range and lowering of other cardiovascular factors (Vijan 2010).
Patients are encouraged to monitor their blood sugar levels especially those on multi-dose insulin, however it was also noted that those not on multi-dose insulin didn’t benefit from this (American Diabetes Association, 1997). Management of other cardiovascular factors including high cholesterol and hypertension is said to increase a patients life expectancy by a great magine.it is also argued that intensive sugar lowering as opposed to standard sugar lowering procedures does not seem to have any adverse effect on mortality (Ripsin, Kang & Urban, 2009).
The most fundamental factors of diabetes management include getting a proper diet and enough body exercise. It is generally argued that a lot of exercise brings out better results good examples are resistance training and aerobics, a combination of these two brings out the most effective result. Patients are encouraged to follow diets that promote weight loss although there in no particular diet proposed (Zanuso, Jimenez, Pugliese, Corigliano and Balducci 2010; Soneral, 2000).
Community support organizations’ identified
Researchers have found out that patients, who belong to community support groups, are more confident, less depressed and less stressed in part because they are properly equipped by their groups with knowledge of how to control their blood sugar levels. There are various community based organizations that are currently offering various services and help to patients with diabetes type 2.
Some of the community support groups for individuals with type 2 diabetes include: Ararat Diabetes Support Group; Bairnsdale Diabetes Support Group; Ballarat Eureka Diabetes Support Group; Banyule Diabetes Support Group; Beaufort Diabetes Support Group;Benalla Diabetes Support Group;Bendigo Diabetes Support Group;Birchip Diabetes Support Group;Brimbank Diabetes Support Group;Broadmeadows Diabetes Support Group;Cardinia Awareness Group;Casterton Diabetes Support Group;Charlton Diabetes Support Group;Chelsea Diabetes Support Group;Cobden Diabetes Support Group;Cohuna Diabetes Support Group;Colac Branch;Corryong Diabetes Support Group;Craigieburn and District Diabetes Support Group;Croydon Diabetes Support Group – Sugarbeats;Dandenong & District Diabetes Support Group;Darebin Diabetes Support Group;Diamond Valley Diabetes Support Group ,Benalla Bendigo Diabetes Support Group ; Birchip Diabetes Support Group
Brimbank Diabetes Support Group , Glenroy Cardinia Awareness Group.
Diabetes type 2 has in the recent past emerged as one of the biggest pandemics to hit mankind. Many people suffer from diabetes but do not have the knowledge due to ignorance and failure to undergo medical screening. Diabetes can be controlled and managed if it detected and diagnosed early enough. Although this is a challenge in third world countries where medical services provision is still below international standards, coupled by lack of enough medical personnel who have specialized in this field. To detect diabetes in young children parents are advised to taken constant note of the development of their children, incase of any delay in a child achieving a mile stone medical assistance should be sort immediately
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