The issue of security is of great concern especially in today’s world where there are threats from different sources. In the past, human factors and usability aspects did not play a critical role in establishing security systems (Cranor and Garfinkel, 2005). Nonetheless, things have changed today, and security matters have had to incorporate both human factors, as well as usability aspects. This is meant to address the emerging challenges facing the world today (Colling, York and Colling, 2010). This paper shall provide a model project aimed at upgrading security at a referral hospital. The security issues at the hospital shall be centered within the main hospital grounds and at the radiology section. Therefore, this paper shall offer an upgrade security model that should be implemented in the two sections of the hospital. For the hospital grounds in general, an enhanced access control system shall be adopted whereas a physical protection system for the radiology section shall be implemented. All these measures are geared towards enhancing the safety of the working environment at the hospital.
The Access Control System
Although the Radiant Referral Hospital has not experienced considerable security threats over the past, there is a need to upgrade the security system. This is critical in ensuring that patients and staff are safe while within the premises of the hospital. This hospital serves a considerable number of patients, and thus people should feel that they are coming to a safe environment. Apart from the patients visiting the facility, the hospital has a huge staff population. The huge staff population ensures that the institution is operating round the clock. The hospital staff works in shifts, and 24 hours around the clock (Kroll, 2008).
The main reason for security upgrade was to enhance the safety situation for both employees and patients who visit the hospital facility. The need for security upgrade has also been informed by the new developments in technology. The hospital has been using old technology in its security arrangements. In this case, a time-lapse recorder that used a videotape had been overtaken by the new technological developments, and was complicated to use. For instance, whenever an incident happened, security personnel were required to review the various tapes for some time to establish whether the time-lapse recorder recorded an image that could be used. Notably, the quality of the tape was compromised, and this meant that the review process was even harder (Kroll, 2008).
The new control system is of the latest technology and uses digital recording. In this respect, retrieving of information will be made simple. For instance, one will be only required to key in a date and time to get what was captured at a certain time while retrieving data. The new control system shall be linked with the time and attendance system. Therefore, employees reporting to work shall make use of their badges while entering the hospital. This will ensure that time and attendance system is updated on the time that the employees are on duty. The new system shall also allow the operator to coordinate the security systems that are found in other hospitals under the Radiant Health network. The Radiant Health network is made up of six hospitals in which The Radiant Referral Hospital is part (Kroll, 2008).
There is no doubt that new technology improves the safety of an institution. The safe environment is critical in attracting employees and clients to the institution (Cranor and Garfinkel, 2005). Looking at the access control system that is in use at the hospital, it can be asserted that a new and advanced system will enhance efficiency in the security operations at the institution (Kramer, 1994). The new system is set to provide enhanced audit trail in the event that a security incident happens. The decision on improving the security system is not a wish in some of the organization. This is because the requirement is informed by the various regulations (Colling, York and Colling, 2010). For the case of the Federal agencies, they have to adhere to the provisions of the Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD12). On the other hand, healthcare institutions have to adhere to the provisions of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996. The HIPAA asserts that healthcare providers have to protect the information regarding the patients under their care. Access control is critical in an organization’s effort to ensure that it complies with the provisions of the two regulations (Kroll, 2008).
Employee convenience is a critical consideration in conducting an upgrade to the existing security control system. The existing control system requires that all the working staff should enter and exit the hospital premises via the few revolving doors or turnstiles. In this respect, the flow of human traffic is usually slow during the start and end of the working shift. This has presented an insurmountable challenge to the hospital organization. The employees have been forced to take a significant time getting in and out of the premise due to the long ques. Addressing this challenge has been a problem to many organizations. Most of them have turned to using optical turnstiles, which do not have an arm or those with an arm that can be switched on and off. In this regard, staff identification cards are subjected to a scanning process before the employees are allowed entry to the hospital (Kroll, 2008).
The New Access Control System
The proposed access control system has been intertwined with modern technology to enhance the productivity of the security staff. For instance, those systems present in the market enable the operators or administrators to establish connectivity to the system remotely through the internet or an improvised network. This is beneficial as it limits the need for a technician to be required in diagnosing events that happen in a remote institution. In addition, some of the modern systems have been computerized whereby accessibility to the facility can be operated from one computer. This aspect is designed to save time and ensure that there is an update from all entry points whenever an employee is prohibited from gaining entry to the premise. This aspect can also be applied whenever an employee changes his or her working shift. The modern access control systems also have an integrated database that facilitates the work of the security staff in searching for the records while investigating an event. This is because such work can be done in an electronic manner. Also, most of the access controls systems in the market today track the times when people enter the premise, as well as when they leave. This is critical especially when investigating a security incident (Kroll, 2008).
The access control system to be installed can operate on the corporate information technology network. This system uses a similar highway as the IT, and thus it can be considered to be a benefit that comes from investment (Kramer, 1994). Essentially, the previous control system had incorporated the old technology. Also, the old control system relied on stand-alone systems. The new system has incorporated time and attendance aspects. In addition, the new control system can link with the other architectural systems in the premise such as the elevator, lighting, as well as the HVAC systems. In this new control system, employees shall be required to swipe their identification cards to gain entrance to the premise. On swiping the card, this will trigger the lights to come on thereby kicking off the heating or cooling system. This enhances the safety of the staff, and contributes towards energy saving mechanisms that ensure that the systems only run when required. This new safety control system can connect to other safety systems like the security cameras and the fire alarm system. In this case, if the fire alarm goes off, the management shall be able to establish the number of people within the facility who should be evacuated. On the other hand, when the control system is linked with the security cameras, there is a supplementary check provided by the control system. This system is bound to provide huge information such that the top management of the institution can easily identify the employees who are within the premise at any given point in time (Kroll, 2008).
The physical protection system for the radiology section
The Radiant Referral Hospital has a radiation section whose security measures needs to be enhanced. There is massive evidence across the world that radioactive material can easily be sneaked outside the regulation framework that has been established. Therefore, it is important for the Radiant Referral Hospital to upgrade the physical security of the radiology section of the hospital. The world is faced with a potential threat from criminals, which may involve radioactive material. It has been noted that the perception of the danger presented by a threat is more critical than the actual danger (Bakr and Hamad, 2009). In this respect, the Radiant Referral Hospital should not wait for the risk to occur before enhancing the security measures.
The factors that can result to lack of control of radioactive materials are many. This can be caused by numerous factors such as lack of effective regulations and ineffective physical protection. Also, when there is no commitment from the management, then this can easily lead to loss of control of the radioactive materials (Kramer, 1994). Therefore, it is important to look at these risks and take effective actions that can remedy the situation. To install a comprehensive physical protection of radioactive materials is critical and involves various aspects. It involves designing hardware, procedures, and the facility in a manner that will comply with the security measures. There should be prompt and adequate determination of threat on a radiological installation to ensure safety of the installation. This is critical in protecting the members of the public and employees (Reid, 2005).
The main objective of a security upgrade in the radiology section is meant to protect the radioactive material from being exposed to obvious or undercover malicious actions. Essentially, the physical protection system is meant to ensure the prevention of sabotage of important equipment; deterring theft of critical data and materials from the facility; and offer protection to the people. The best physical protection system must achieve its goals through deterrence or by combining detection, delay and response aspects (Colling, York and Colling, 2010).
Asset and Site Assessment
The radiology section of the Radiant Referral Hospital is usually open for five hours each day. The facility opens from nine o’clock in the morning to two o’clock in the afternoon. The facility has six main gates that include the gate for employees and a clinical unit that is usually closed at two o’clock in the afternoon. The second gate is used by patients and is kept open for 24 hours each day. These two are considered the main gates of the facility. The third gate is reserved for emergency cases and stays open for 24 hours. The fourth gate is reserved for the facility’s receivables. The fifth gate is used for external treatment, and it is usually closed at a half past one in the afternoon. Finally, the sixth gate is used to serve those coming to the family medical care unit, and it is closed at six o’clock in the evening (Bakr and Hamad, 2009). The facility layout is presented below:
Source: Bakr and Hamad (2009)
The current state of the security system
At the moment, the physical security of the facility is comprised of a concrete fence that is two and a half meters in height. This forms the perimeter boundary of the radiology section. The radiotherapy room has windows that are reinforced by steel bars. There is a CCTV camera installation at the waiting area in the first floor. The CCTV records a video that is reviewed by the security personnel. There is inter-connectivity among all the gates, and one can gain entrance to the facility through any of the gates. However, there is only one entrance to the radiology unit, and locking of the door is done manually. In this regard, the physical protection system in the hospital functions primarily depends on response from the security guards. Whenever there is an intrusion, the guards have to call on the police for support. Therefore, an upgrade in the physical protection system is critical to this facility. This is because an upgrade in the security system shall address the three functions including detection, delay and response. This will ensure that the radioactive source is comprehensively secured (Bakr and Hamad, 2009).
Risk Assessment and action level
Risk assessment is based on the notion that the management of the materials of interest is not up to the established standards. In the event of an accident, there is the likelihood that the protecting shield of the radioactive materials can easily be removed. The discharging of the radiotherapy unit might lead to a similar risk as to the case where one removes radioactive material from the protecting shield of the radiotherapy unit for shipping. Given that there are numerous sources for radioactive materials across the world, security initiatives should be directed towards sources that are at great risk. It can be noted that the IAEA came up with a new classification system for radioactive materials. This classification aimed to ensure that the sources are under control that is equivalent to the risks posed. The IAEA came up with this classification basing on the capability of the radioactive materials to lead to deterministic effects. Radioactive material is regarded as being hazardous on the basis of two aspects. This include if the material can lead to permanent injury or if it poses an immediate threat to life when not managed properly (Bakr and Hamad, 2009).
Threat assessment and design basis threat
It can be noted that the design basis threat (DBT) should have consideration for the features and characteristics on the potential enemies who might be motivated to case damage or attempt to remove radioactive materials illegally. Using the DBT method is highly recommended by the nuclear body, IAEA. This is because the IAEA considers the DBT as the best method in designing the security measures for certain sources (Colling, York and Colling, 2010). For the case at the Radiant Referral Hospital, there is a high risk that involves the radioactive materials within the radiology section. The risk level pays a critical role in determining the security measures that are necessary in protecting the source. When the risk is relatively great, the security system should be great to avert the risk. There are four groups that have been established basing on the essential protection abilities. The groups establish a systematic way of classifying the graded performance on the assessed risk. In the case of the Radiant Referral Hospital radiology section, the security level required can be categorized as Group A. In this case, measures should be identified to prevent unofficial access and detect illegal access and attempts to acquire the radioactive materials. Such measures may include delaying the acquisition until when the response has been achieved (Bakr and Hamad, 2009).
Enhancing the physical protection system and design criteria
Upgrading the physical protection security system of the radiology section of the hospital should incorporate both the feature-based and performance-based designs. With the worst case of threat in mind, a physical protection system has been proposed to enhance the security of the facility. The proposed physical protection system is made to serve three core functions including detection, delay and response. The system proposed also has the capacity to conduct verification of the different roles of the system. These roles include in-depth protection, balanced protection, as well as prompt detection or response. The physical protection was established in two protection zones within the radiology section and the entrance. The protection zones include the control room and treatment room whereas the entrance includes the second gate and emergency door, as well as other exit doors of the facility (Bakr and Hamad, 2009). The following figure indicated the suggested access and their locations:
Source: Bakr and Hamad (2009).
In achieving the detection function, there shall be zone 1 with vibration sensor, glass break sensor, duress button, motion light, cameras and dialer. Zone 2 had a balanced magnetic switch as a door device, a microwave sensor, passive Infra Red sensors, duress button, source sensor, camera and motion light. The listed functions are connected with an alarm assessment for all sensors and linked to video monitors and sirens located in three areas including door 2, the emergency door, and the security room. The effectiveness of the detection aspect can be measured through the probability of sensing an enemy action, the time taken before reporting and assessing the alarm, and the nuisance alarm rate. The new physical protection system that has been proposed can provide prompt detection, balanced detection, and protection in depth.
The delay function incorporates two elements including the physical barriers and the protective force. In the physical barriers, there will be Zone 1 will have hardened doors in the three entrances. There will also be key control systems for the three doors and steel on the windows. In zone 2, there will be high security hardened door with keypad and lock where one shall be required to have a password. There will also be a hardened door that will use a key. On the other hand, the protective force shall comprise of two guards that have been properly trained to man doors 2 and 3; two guards that have been trained to keep vigil at the radiotherapy facility; and a police officer to keep guard at door 3. The measure of the effectiveness of the delay function shall be based on the time needed by the enemy to bypass the established delay elements.
In respect to the response function, it is comprised of the activities taken by the response force in preventing enemy success. The response element is comprised of interruption in this context. Interruption can be defined as an adequate number of response force staff available at the necessary location in stopping any progress by the enemy. This involves accurate communication to the protection force regarding the activities of the enemy and the subsequent deployment of the response force. The effectiveness of this function can be measured through the capacity to deploy the response force at the enemy location. It can also be measured by the time that is taken before a response is made after receipt of information about an enemy in the facility. Enhancing the response can be attained through a series of steps. There is a need to establish a memorandum of understanding between the guards and the police officers. Also, appropriate training of the security personnel is of paramount importance. In addition, implementation of the authorized security services is critical to facilitate timely response. Lastly, it is important to ensure that all procedures are documented (Bakr and Hamad, 2009).
Many organizations are in search for ways of upgrading their security systems. This has been necessitated by the new developments in the technological world, as well as the emergent threats that characterize the world as of today. Therefore, it is critical for the organization to make sure that the people working within their premise and materials that they handle are safe from any risks. The risks may include danger to the people and the facility or theft of sensitive materials that the organization handles. The Radiant Referral Hospital has had to upgrade its security systems to boost its security situation. The adoption of new technology has been critical in ensuring that the hospital has an enhanced access control to its premise. The new control system is connected to the other systems thereby ensuring efficiency of the security and other systems. With the implementation of the suggested physical protection system in the radiology section of the Radiant Referral Hospital, security of the radioactive materials is set to be enhanced. The main goal of the physical protection system is to ensure that the accomplishment of overt and covert illegal activities at the facility is prevented. This security upgrade implementation centers on the use of a systematic and measurable approach in designing a physical protection system. The concepts of detection, delay and response have been emphasized.
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