Validity is a term that refers to a study that is accurate and assesses given areas of study that the researcher is trying to understand. Validity may be internal or external. This depends on the aspect of the study that the researcher wants to measure. Internal validity is the design of conducting research and how the decision making process was undertaken to get the best results. On the other hand, external validity refers to the extent to which the study can be generalized and be compared with other research studies. Reliability refers to the extent to which a given research project can give consistent results and outcome. This is when several experiments are undertaken using the same procedure. In this case, the experiments are to be done using the same research tools and procedures even if conducted by different researchers. However, the outcome should be similar. Reliable data from a research study should be relevant to the problems that the researcher is trying to solve and thus should help with the decision-making process (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007).
Validity measures how an instrument can measure a given characteristic in a research field accurately. In this regard, similar results are expected when using a common procedure. When the experiment is carried, and the results are compared, they should indicate the same outcome. For a research to be valid, the results should be verified by a peer in the same doctrine or study. A peer is a person who shares the same legal status in terms of education or even age. A peer can also be a person who shares qualifications or abilities with another researcher. Thus, in a health and medicine field, it is important for research to undertake peer review of a given study. Peer review is important as it helps to check the validity of any results derived from a research study. In the field of medicine, the researcher should consult widely with peers to find lasting solutions to health issues that affect people. Peer review will help to compare the best approach to a given ailment and thus better drugs will be available to people (Gerrish & Lacey, 2010).
On the other hand, reliability can be enhanced by undertaking peer review among different people in the same field of study to find the best result and outcome that can be relied upon by all. Having peer review helps in determining the consistency of results in the area of study. Two health officer researchers can undertake to review one another’s work on a given topic to try and expound on the topic. This helps to eradicate any errors that might have occurred during the initial stages of research. Peer review helps in comparing the analysis of each health officer and trying to gauge the consistency of the data used in the research. Test and retesting can be done on the data to bring out the consistency in results while following the required procedure. The review can be done by a committee to ascertain consistency of the data because human decisions are classified as reliable if different people come to the same conclusion and results. When peer review is done by a committee, the process should be monitored to ensure that objectives of the study are met. Thus, the committee should have access to information from other professionals in the same field of study who can check for consistency of the information. Therefore, for a given health and medical information to be considered valid and reliable, it should have undergone a peer review. In this case, it is crucial to certify the information given by the researcher on the topic (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007).
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