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Win the Brand Relevance Battle and then Build Competitor Barriers

Business Environment
Week 2 : Strategy
Aaker, David A. “Win the Brand Relevance Battle and then Build Competitor Barriers”.
Summary
The article explores comprehensively the importance of establishing a strong and competitive brand in the market, a factor that makes a business gain a competitive edge over others. The author seeks to effectively determine how business enterprises are able to promote the value and brand image for higher productivity and profitability amidst the highly dynamic global competition. Brand is considered as one of the key pillars in determining the road map to success for different business competing in the global market.
Strength
The strength of the article lies in its clear expression of how a business can be able to develop strategies. The author focuses on key elements which are crucial for developing a strong brand and refers to several case studies to support the arguments on how to build positive barriers.
Weakness
The author does not clearly reveal how the application of the aforementioned strategies can be effected in different businesses. Besides, the article is mainly based on the overall ability of the management to relate the different aspects of the business operations and does not look at leveraging core values for staff.
 
 
Concluding Observation
I generally agree with the author that brand image establishment is indeed much easier for businesses due to simplicity in their strategic decision making and communication. Business operations have recently seen a major turn in demand.
Mintzberg, Henry. “The Strategy Concept II: Another Look at Why Organizations Need Strategies”.
Summary
The article sets the stage for businesses to learn about the relevance of developing business strategies. Of particular importance is the fact that the article comprehensively examines the various strategies and provides the results that were assimilated at the end of a study.
Strength
The author creates an understanding of the various reasons why a business needs to develop strategies. The article then sets out to discuss strategies such as consistency, effective organization management, focus and direction as crucial elements that a business may or may not need.
Weakness
There are conflicting arguments on how one important strategy may turn out to be a major problem to a business. While it is agreeable and well supported by relevant studies, lack of a clear position in the article on the matters discussed may confuse the audience.
 
Concluding Observation
Devising effective business strategies that improve the overall performance of an organization and its successful participation in the global market has become one of the most burning ambitions in companies which intend to increase customer preference, profitability and sustain competitive advantage.
Rimiene, Kristina. “Supply Chain Agility Concept Evolution”.
Summary
It focuses on the ability for a business to develop and grow supply chain agility. Of critical importance is the author’s position that this can be achieved when a business consolidates with a consumer or a supplier and work together.
Strength
The article strongly brings out the idea that businesses can gain competitive by developing supply chain agility. The article has a strong backing of relevant studies, empirical researches, theories and opinions from different authors.
Weakness
It fails to comprehensively discuss what agility is and how businesses can effectively embrace agility as it is still a new concept. Besides, it offers limited evaluations, characteristics, requirements and distinguishing factors of supply chain agility.
Conclusive Observation
Supply chain agility is a crucial concept that aids businesses to respond rapidly to their production systems, infrastructure, suppliers, competitors, customers and changing market needs. In my view, the article has strongly reflected the various components that are crucial for agility.
References
Aaker, D. A. (2012). Win the brand relevance battle and then build competitor barriers.     California Management Review. 54(2), 43-57.
Mintzberg, H. (1987). The strategy concept II: another look at why organizations need      strategies. California Management Review. 54(2), 25-34.
Rimiene, K. (2011). Supply chain agility concept evolution (1990-2010). Economics and   Management. 16, 892-897.
Week 3 : Ethics
Products, People, and Planet
This paper critically evaluates the three imperatives of sustainability. These include the social, environmental and economic imperatives. These are together known as the triple bottom-line sustainability imperative. The author of the paper examined some of the leading companies including Toyota and Clorox. He wanted to determine the effects of the activities on the elements of ‘triple bottom-line’. The author finally explained the importance of being keen to make business sustainable to the environment, socially and economically (Dhiman, 2008).
One of the strengths of the article is that the author quoted some of the works of other authors. This means that he was not biased because he did not provide his opinion but pure facts. Another strength of the paper is that it is well cited as all the sources are well referenced both within the text and at the reference page. The author also spoke about global warming, which is a global concern and this would be helpful to many. One of the weaknesses of the article is that the article does not provide many of the cases of the economic, social and environmental effects caused by ignorance. It is important to note that every business should look at the effects it has on the people, the economy and the environment in order to be sustainable.
Organization ethics from a perspective of praxis
The paper by Nielsen (1993) discusses about one of the fields of organization ethics. Specifically, he explores praxis. This is the least developed area in the field. This term is used to mean the various ways of finding theory that are explain how to engage and address the serious ethical issues. It also implies developing organizations that value ethics.
One of the strengths of the paper is that it explores the problem, which is clear and concise. Within the scope of organization ethics, this study brings out the perspective of praxis as an important one in the current business market. The author was also able to remain focused on the topic at hand and critically explored the options. The work of the author is also supported by a variety of literature and the author cites the sources appropriately. One weakness of this article is that it was not based on empirical research and yet it had the potential to do so. This usually puts the theory into practice and examines the subject of discussion in an actual situation.
Every organization should observe ethics in its operations in order to understand and explain the behaviors within the organization. It is also important to know what is unethical or ethical in any company.
A response to “getting to the bottom of ‘triple bottom line’”
This paper was a response to an article that had been written earlier. This article argues against a previous paper that criticized the Triple Bottom Line concept. It argued that the critique was flawed (Pava, 2007).
One of the strengths of the paper is that the author is able to argue his position strongly and accepts that the ‘Triple Bottom Line’ concept has limitations. The author was also able to stay narrowly focused on the topic. One of the weaknesses of this article is that the information may be biased. This is because there is little literature in the subject and it is not supported by many scholars.
References
 
Dhiman, S. (2008). Products, people, and planet: The Triple Bottom-Line Sustainability Imperative. Journal of Global Business Issues, 2(2), 51-57.
Nielsen, R. P. (1993). Organization ethics from a perspective of praxis. Business Ethics Quarterly, 3(2), 131-151.
Pava, M. L. (2007). A response to “getting to the bottom of triple bottom line”. Business Ethics Quarterly, 17(1), 105-110.
 
Week 4 : Stakeholders & CSR
The Stakeholder Model Refined                                                     
This article gives a reflection on the stakeholder’s model which is an approach which is used by the management teams to transfer ethics to management practice and strategy. The article provides the reader with the definitions of stakeholders who in this case refers to individuals who maintain a stake in any organization in a manner that can be described as a shareholder (Donaldson, 1995). Essentially, stakeholders have got a series of multilateral influences with the firms which they are part of. Thus, through this article enables one to be in a position of appreciating and understanding the roles which are being played.
Strength
This article enables any reader to understand the dynamics which are involved in the running of organizations. The article is based on certain principles which work and which can apply within any organization regardless of the location as well as the structure.
Weakness
Despite the fact that this article has got beneficial aspects, it is worth noting that it has also got some flaws. For instance, there are aspects which cannot just be explained theoretically as purported in the article. The approach that this article takes offers a reflection of definition with regard to limits.
Conclusion
In conclusion, this article offers studies which have been carried out in the past and how one can utilize them effectively. Furthermore, this article enables a reader to note some of the specific aspects within an organization which can be addressed and which can form the basis for ethical management. Despite this, the article brings to the fore some of the flaws which may be associated with the model.
Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility Management for Competitive Advantage                            This article brings to the fore some of the aspects which need to be addressed and evaluated especially with regard to corporate social responsibility. It gives a reflection of the corporate social responsibility strategy and the issues which are associated with corporate social responsibility (Garvare & Johansson, 2010). The articles highlights on role that corporate social responsibility plays within a business operating environment. Furthermore, the article presents some of the approaches which are used in corporate social responsibility.
Strength
This article enables one to appreciate the role which is played by the corporate social responsibility approaches. Furthermore, it addresses some of the approaches which need to be put in place with regard to this subject.
Weakness
The major weakness of this article is that it does not present to the reader the main challenges and solutions that are associated with corporate social responsibility.
Conclusion
In conclusion, this article is relevant to the daily on goings within businesses and organizations. It enhances the importance of giving value to addressing the challenges which are faced by the society.
Management for Sustainability                                                       
This article gives a reflection of some of the challenges which are being faced in the management circles, this especially so with regard to the volatile business operating environments (Subhabrata, 2007; Yves, 2009). It also highlights on some of the advantages which are associated with this general model. It is worth noting that this model is quite useful since it offers one with some of the approaches and benefits of ensuring that an organization is able to enjoy global stability in all the available approaches.                                                                         The main weakness of this article is that it does not offer immediate solutions to some of the flaws which exist in the management circles. However, it is an important tool which provides a general positive framework that will ensure that an organization is able to function within the scope of its vision and mission.
References
Donaldson, T., & Preston, L. E. (1995). The Stakeholder Theory of the Corporation: Concepts,
Evidence, and Implications. Academy Of Management Review, 20(1), 65-91.
Fassin, Y. (2009). The Stakeholder Model Refined. Journal of Business Ethics, 84(1), 113-135.
Garvare, R., & Johansson, P. (2010). Management for sustainability – A stakeholder theory
Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 21(7), 737-744.
Sousa Filho, J., Wanderley, L., Gómez, C., & Farache, F. (2010). Strategic Corporate Social         Responsibility Management for Competitive Advantage. Brazilian Administration Review (BAR), 7(3), 294-309.
Week 5 :  Ecology and Globalization             
Article 1 Analysis
The article under consideration called Event Ecology, Causal Historical Analysis, and Human-Environment Research explores the human-environment interactions by using event ecology approach (Walters & Vayda, 2009). Specifically, the strategy can explain environmental change and involve causal historical analysis related to biophysical and social events, as well as eliminating inferences and cause-and-effect reasoning techniques.
The strength of the article lies in representing well-known materials from an alternative angle. A pragmatic approach representing interaction between humans and environment provides an in-depth analysis of already existing findings. Avoiding stereotypical assumptions and engaging deeply into the obtained findings allows the researcher to be skeptical about already existing evidence, yet remain open to new alternatives.
The main disadvantage of the research is confined to insufficient analysis of limitation to the method chosen. The author does not provide a consistent framework and application of the method with regard to other existing method and, as a result, event ecology cannot be used as a self-efficient method.
With regard to the strengths and weaknesses, the use of the presented approach to studying human-environment interaction is narrow-focused because it fails to combine different approach and highlight the strengths.
Article 2 Analysis
The article under analysis called Does Global Have a Responsibility to Promote Just Institutions? sheds light on the process of globalization and its influence on business (Hsieh, 2009). In particular, the researcher argues that the multinational enterprises should be responsible for creating and developing just institutions.
The strength of the article consists in highlighting urgent and important topics within the contest of the globalization process. Greater attention given to the development of large-scale business allows to estimate the position of business in the world with regard to local development of private sector. In addition, the article also manages to provide a strong theoretical perspective supporting the analysis of global business perspective.
The main disadvantage of the research is connected with lack of evidence regarding the responsibility imposed on business, particularly on the relation between these two aspects. Specifically, no criteria according to which enterprises should introduce responsibility for promoting just background institutions have been presented.
In conclusion, the article provides a fresh insight into the problem of globalization and explains why enterprises should take responsibilities on the development of global business. At the same time, it also introduces specific dimensions of business development at global and local levels.
Article 3 Analysis
            The article in question is called Indian Business Sustainability in the Era of Globalization explores the new step of global business development (Mitrabinda, 2010). The research outlines the necessity of Indian large companies to integrate new strategies of economic survival. The steps will aim at enhancing environmental sustainability and introducing new approach to increase environmental performance.
The main advantage of the research consists in displaying evidence on the globalization process in such developing countries as India. Using concrete example, the authors provide an extensive report on the role of sustainability reporting as a new strategy for enhancing environmental control and performance.
The main disadvantage of the presented material lies in excess reliance on theoretical perspectives with no actual mentioning of concrete companies taking part in integrating sustainability reporting. Although the names of the companies are presented, there is not direct framework built to meet the requirements of globalization for a specific company.
In conclusion, the article poses an interesting discussion on the necessity to re-structure the business framework in Indian with regard to the globalization process. The author provides an extensive overview of specific interactions between environment, business, and economy leading to advancing the welfare of the globalized community. In addition, the author manages to introduce a universal plan for integrating into an international economy and market.
Article 4 Analysis
            The article at issues is entitled as The Over-Reliance on Self-Regulation in CSR Policy and is dedicated to criticizing the self-regulation techniques to handling businesses (Lynch-Wood et al., 2009). Instead, the researchers propose to introduce new dimensions of managing companies that are more attached to corporate social responsibilities. Due to the social pressures, the environmental issues are insufficiently tackled by the large companies.
The main strength of article is associated with the consideration of stakeholders involved into the business environment analysis. They also provide a range of responsibilities that should be typical of globally oriented enterprises. In order to define the responsibilities and duties, the scholars describe systematically the influence of externally environment on the development of large companies. Responses and drive forces are also examined in an efficient way.
The main shortcoming of the articles is demonstrated in failure of the scholars to define the direction in which the research can be implemented in future, as well as how these presented perspective can be applied to other globalized companies. In addition, the paper provides too many perspectives within one research and, as a result, it is hard to define which perspectives are pivotal in the study.
In conclusion, the article is well organized with subheading and sufficient evidence. The researchers have covered a wide spectrum of problems related environmental sustainability and global business development.
References
Hsieh, N. (2009). Does Global Business Have a Responsibility to Promote Just Institutions? Business Ethics Quarterly, 19(2), 251-273.
Lynch-Wood, G., Williamson, D., & Jenkins, W. (2009). The Over-Reliance on Self-Regulation in CSR Policy. Business Ethics: A European Review, 18(1), 52-65.
Mitrabinda, S. (2010). Indian Business Sustainability in the Era of Globalization. Advances in Management, 3(5), 57-65.
Walters, B. B., & Vayda, A. P. (2009). Event Ecology, Causal Historical Analysis, and Human-Environment Research. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 99(3), 534-553.
WEEK 6: Technology & Culture
           Consumer Protection in Islam: The Case of Pakistan                                          
Business people have got their own various codes of conduct. However, there are cases where these codes of conduct are driven or influenced by religion. In this article, one is able to understand the role that Islam plays with regard to the code of conduct among the business people who ascribe to the Islamic faith in Pakistan (Kishwar & Sarwat, 2000). The article provides a reflection of issues which affect the consumers and how the Islamic religion has had a major influence.
Strengths                                                       
The main strength of this article is that it gives a clear ground for the proposed argument. It enables the reader to appreciate the role that religion plays in the business world. Most importantly, it enables one to understand how the Islamic religion views the business world and the impact this has on the business relations across the globe.
Weaknesses
The article is biased in a way. This is made prevalent by the way it handles one issue at the expense of other religions. Essentially, one is left wondering whether other religions are lesser compared to the Islamic religion. It does not explain some of the problems which are associated in cases where people from this religion do not uphold these values.
Conclusion
The article is quite informative in that it enables a person to get a clearer picture of what goes on in the mind of an Islamic business person. Despite the fact that this article does not address the entire issues which might be arising, it leaves the reader with an aura of satisfaction knowing what to expect when one finds him or herself in a given situation.
Information Technology as Competitive Advantage: The Role of Human, Business, and Technology Resources                                               
This article explores the relationship which exists between information technology and how it affects performance in the workplace. This article has a special bias on the nature of changes which are taking place in the current society. It details the strategies which have put forward and how these strategies affect the operation of these businesses (Thomas & Anne, 1997). Essentially, this research article is a reflection of what takes place in an ideal case.
Strengths       
It is very informative noting that the business people are always seeking avenues of enhancing their profitability. It draws facts and evidence based on studies which have been carried out thus the reader is assured on the validity of the information which is presented. In essence, it informs the nature of business operations and how they rely on strategic decisions and choices in order to thrive.
Weaknesses   
The major argument is that the article is purely theoretical. Despite the fact that it presents study findings which were carried out it still does not address the entire issues at hand. Secondly, the article does not cut across all the possible situations. For example, it addresses a case which is particular to given conditions thus denying others an opportunity to practice what is in the document.
Conclusion
Despite the fact that the article is informative, it should also address situations and cases which involve other parts of the world where such information is not available.
The Lessons Learned From the Unique Characteristics of Small Technology-Based Firms    
            This is a classical study which was carried out that gives a description of the small technology based forms in Brazil (Berte, 2010). It enables the reader to understand what goes on in these firms and some of the challenges that these firms face. Furthermore, one is able to identify the growth patterns of such firms and how they can enhance their capacity as they address the challenges which befall them.
Strengths
This article is specific in nature. This is because it addresses a particular sector that needs investment in. The article is quite informative such that one is able to identify the nature of operations and how small technology firms operate.
Weaknesses
The article is based in one sphere of the globe. It does not apply in other sectors of the globe which need much assistance. Thus, this makes the information herein to be irrelevant in other parts of the country.                                                                                                                 
Conclusion    
This article gives practical information despite the fact that this information may not cut across the globe.
Changing Authority Patterns: A Cultural Perspective                                                    
The central theme in this article is based on management. It highlights the cultural aspects which are influencing management patterns in certain locations across the globe (Trudy, 1985). Furthermore, it gives a depiction of the current management trends in light of the prevailing cultural conditions.
Strengths
This article is versatile. This is because it addresses the prevailing circumstances and conditions in a clear and concise manner. Furthermore, it cuts across, that is, many people from across the globe can identify with what the article presents.
Weaknesses   
This article ignores certain aspects such as leadership as a related to management from a cultural perspective. Furthermore, it is too theoretical rather than being practical
Conclusion
This article is quite informative such that it leaves the reader with the full understanding of the nature of management practices that are prevalent in the current society. Furthermore, one gets the understanding on the nature of challenges that the management team is exposed to in this present age.
References
Berte, E., Rodrigues, L., & Almeida, M. (2010). The Lessons Learned From the Unique
Characteristics of Small Technology-Based Firms. International Management Review,
6(1), 62-70.
Heller, T. (1985). Changing Authority Patterns: A Cultural Perspective. Academy of
Management Review, 10(3), 488-495.
Khan, K., & Aftab, S. (2000). Consumer Protection in Islam: The Case of Pakistan. Australian
Economic Papers, 39(4), 483-503.
Powell, T. C., & Micallef, A. D. (1997). Information Technology as Competitive Advantage:
The Role of Human, Business, and Technology Resources. Strategic Management
Journal, 18(5), 375-405.
 
Week 7: Government
Government Polices and Sources of Latecomer Firms’ Capability Building: A Learning Story from Brazil
The effects of structural reforms have been generalized in a way that they overlook the micro and firm-level progress in technology. A firm’s capability to perform in a foreign location is not only dependent on its economic fundamentals, but also on the business environment in the host’s region. External factors like population, tax and the employment rate affect a firm’s power when it comes to decision making. When expanding to foreign locations, firms should consider redesigning their structure to conform to the government policies (Figueiredo, 2008).
Strengths
This article has recognised the importance of structural reforms. Identifying the micro and firm-level areas of improvement has further given solutions to the challenges experienced by firms expanding operations to foreign locations. It gives firms hints on how to combine the basic market oriented macroeconomic factors with possible external factors (Figueiredo, 2008).
Weaknesses
This article has not adequately defined the relationship between a firm’s organizational structure and the government policies in host countries. Information on how to link these two aspects, to come up with a competitive advantage on late entrance is still lacking. The information considers any new firm regardless of whether entrance into the market is late or not (Figueiredo, 2008).
Conclusion
Technological growth involves considering micro and firm level policies. They should be used like a learning strategy to help firms progress and give them a competitive advantage in foreign competition. The Impact of the Governmental Policy on the Transnational Companies’ Activities.
The Impact of the Governmental Policy on the Transnational Companies’ Activities
A foreign company’s operations are significantly influenced by the host country’s government policies. These can cause conflicts or even business failure if a firm does not research on the foreign country’s political structure and its relationship with the country of origin. No country will allow total foreign penetration into its economy and firms should limit their activities within the allowed to scope to avoid conflicts. Government policies change according to the political and social economic systems. This requires that a company studies them before investing (Golea, 2009).
Strengths
This article has successfully differed with the notion that foreign investment is possible as long as there is business potential. It is evident that a lot of research should be done on the foreign country before foreign investment is carried out. External factors such as politics and social economic activities have been identified as key determinants in foreign investment (Golea, 2009).
Weaknesses
This article has portrayed foreign investment as a highly risky move in business growth. It may scare potential investors especially if the identified area of location has a dynamic political system. The positive side of foreign investment has not been mentioned (Golea, 2009).
Conclusion
Expansion to foreign countries makes firms vulnerable to political and social economic factors of the host country. These factors should be given top priority before investing to minimise the chances of conflict or business failure. The need for innovation as a rationale for government involvement in entrepreneurship.
The Need for Innovation as a Rationale for Government Involvement in Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurship provides a free market in which participants can be innovative to create wealth. It involves Small Micro-Enterprises, which can be easily outdone by large firms. Therefore, it is noteworthy that the government supports them to ensure business growth. This can be achieved through reducing risk and aiding entrepreneurs financially. This encourages innovation resulting to business growth that improves the overall economy (Michael & Pearce, 2009).
Strengths
Governments support entrepreneurship either helps in job creation or adds competition in the market. It has given a solution to investors, consumers as well as the government and is useful from the consumer’s, investor’s and the government’s point of view (Michael & Pearce, 2009).
Weaknesses
This article suggests that consumer welfare is more valuable than producer welfare. This is not the case and both welfares should be given equal consideration while formulating government policies (Michael & Pearce, 2009).
Conclusion
When the government intervenes in Entrepreneurship, it encourages innovation in business, and this is an admirable trait for economic growth.
References
Figueiredo, P. N. (2008). Government Policies and Sources of Latecomer Firms’ Capability
Building: A Learning Story from Brazil. Oxford Development Studies, 36(1), 59-88.
Golea, V. (2009). The Impact of the Governmental Policy on the Transnational Companies’
Activities. Revista de Management si Inginerie Economica, 8(1), 51-60.
Michael, S. C. & Pearce, J. A. (2009). The Need for Innovation as a Rationale for Government Involvement in Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development. 21(3), 285-302.
Week 8: Religion, Language & Gender
Introduction
All businesses function in the context of human cultural practices and understandings. Three of the more powerful are religion, language, and gender. This week the course will explore these three cultural sets and their interaction with business. Read carefully because the concepts are very difficult and often seem quite contrary to the reality we think we experience. While you are reading, note points that seem to be against common sense. What evidence do the writers provide for their point of view? What do you learn from this alternative way of looking at the world and the role of business within it?
 
Course Content Modules
 
– Religion, Language and Gender (A & B)
 
– Gender in Canada
 
Required Articles (Library web site)
 
Srnka, K., Gegez, A. A., & Arzova, S. S. (2007). Why Is It (Un-)ethical? Comparing Potential European Partners: A Western Christian and An Eastern Islamic Country – On Arguments Used in Explaining Ethical Judgments. Journal Of Business Ethic, 74, 101-118.
BORGERSON, J. L. (2007). On the Harmony of Feminist Ethics and Business Ethics. Business & Society Review 112, 477-509.
 
Optional Articles
Caruso, K., Collins, J., Schragle-Law, S., & Thorpe, J. (2012). Teaching Ethical Business Practices In A Multicultural Classroom: Understanding Differences To Find Common Ground. Business Education & Accreditation, 4(1), 73-86.
Choe, K., & Lau, T. (2010). Attitude towards Business Ethics: Examining the Influence of Religiosity, Gender and Education Levels. International Journal Of Marketing Studies 2, 225-232.
Cornwall, J. R., & Naughton, M. J. (2003). Who is the Good Entrepreneur? An Exploration within the Catholic Social Tradition. Journal Of Business Ethics, 44(1), 61-75.
Costa, E., & Ramus, T. (2012). The Italian Economia Aziendale and Catholic Social Teaching: How to Apply the Common Good Principle at the Managerial Level. Journal Of Business Ethics, 106(1), 103-116.
Demuijnck, G.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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