Catholic efforts for reform and the Protestant movement
Sixteenth century marks the European revolutionary in both political and religious perspectives. During this century, many unprecedented changes occurred in Europe and the surrounding continents. The century is believed to be the beginning of civilization and modern era to historians. All aspects of life particularly political aspects, beliefs and practices changed dramatically. The century is reputed to the economies building capitalistic systems, living styles changed, elites stepped over to produce scientific innovations and creativity while church elders and clergies defined religions in different approaches (D’Aubigné, 2007). The first phase of the century is believed and it was the earth shuttering stage, where disagreements arose on the beliefs and practices of Catholics religion. Martin Luther king senior acted as a key figure in this era of transformation. Martin Luther and his wife Katharina are the symbols of Protestants revolution. Catholics counteracted the Martin’s movement by the Counter Reformation or a Catholic Reformation that defined religious faiths between Protestants and the Catholics in a new angle.
Protestants movement started in the 30th year of war during the European revolution era (HBC, 2003). Protestant movements originated by martin Luther king disagreement to the bible translations. His movement began rebellion over Catholic Church and this ended by Martin Luther being excommunicated from Catholic Church during the Counter Reformation. Before Protestants movement, people believed that if one die with dirty soul one would end up to purgatory or go to hell (D’Aubigné, 2007). People believed that one had to attend church service or meet priest to get soul cleaned. In addition, the old Catholics believed one had to clean soul to go to heaven after death. The Roman Catholics of 16th century believed of special letter bought from pope to get one free from purgatory. For these reasons, Protestants rebelled from catholic under the leadership of Martin Luther and Katharina who disagreed with pope (D’Aubigné, 2007). Conversely, Protestants movement believed that, cleaning of souls was not necessary for church attendance (Halsall, 1998). Also, the Catholics church and pope was wrong selling indulgence to people for cleansing of purgatory. Martin advocated for believers to read and understand the bible for their own rather than be translated from Latin or Greek by priests. In addition, he advocated for marriage for priests and that making image of God was wrong.
On the other hand, counter Reformation or a Catholic Reformation were changes enacted through doctrines, religious orders, religion restructuring and new spiritual belies and practices which were highly supported by the political pillars to end the revolution era in Europe. In fact, the changes were first advocated by the protestant movement. This meant the catholic revolutions were to enact changes fit to civilization and the modern way of life. For example, during the counter-revolution, Roman Catholic administration through pope changed the indulgence letter for sale. In nutshell, all changes in the Roman Catholic Church were primarily because of the Protestant threat to church unity.
Council of Trent focused to lying down and cleaning doctrines and reforms contested by the Martin Luther movement. The council targeted to rejuvenate the Roman Catholic movement in parts of Europe by the end of revolutionary (Anon, nd). The council purposed to rule out the Luther believe of faith and defined precisely the origin and penalty of sins. Further, the council of Trent issued new guidance to clerical and priest jurisdictions in regards to sins and relationship with Catholics followers (Anon, nd). The council of Trent therefore initiated and created foundations of the Roman Catholic faith practiced today. In fact, it changed spiritual aspects and the architecture of the catholic procedures.
According to the acts and the motives of the council of Trent, movement that occurred in the Roman Catholic Church of the sixteenth century should be called a “Counter Reformation” or a “Catholic Reformation” (HBC, 2003). This is because the movement targeted to nullify the faiths and practices of the Protestants movement led by Luther (HBC, 2003). In addition, the catholic reformation changed and clarified various religious aspects protested by the non-catholic movement.
Anon. (nd). THE COUNTER REFORMATION. Kansas City: University of Kansas, USA
D’Aubigné, J. H. M. (2007). History of the reformation of the sixteenth century. New York: R. Carter & brothers.
Halsall, P. (1998). Martin Luther Discovers the True Meaning of Righteousness. Internet Modern History Sourcebook.
HBC. (2003) Christianity: The Protestant Reformation. Retrieved from http://histclo.com/act/rel/faith/christ/ch-refor.html
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